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authorRichard Purdie <richard.purdie@linuxfoundation.org>2011-04-21 11:59:23 +0100
committerRichard Purdie <richard.purdie@linuxfoundation.org>2011-04-21 11:59:23 +0100
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- Poky Hardware README
- ====================
-
-This file gives details about using Poky with different hardware reference
-boards and consumer devices. A full list of target machines can be found by
-looking in the meta/conf/machine/ directory. If in doubt about using Poky with
-your hardware, consult the documentation for your board/device.
-
-Support for additional devices is normally added by creating BSP layers - for
-more information please see the Yocto Board Support Package (BSP) Developer's
-Guide - documentation source is in documentation/bspguide or download the PDF
-from:
-
- http://yoctoproject.org/community/documentation
-
-Support for machines other than QEMU may be moved out to separate BSP layers in
-future versions.
-
-
-QEMU Emulation Targets
-======================
-
-To simplify development Poky supports building images to work with the QEMU
-emulator in system emulation mode. Several architectures are currently
-supported:
-
- * ARM (qemuarm)
- * x86 (qemux86)
- * x86-64 (qemux86-64)
- * PowerPC (qemuppc)
- * MIPS (qemumips)
-
-Use of the QEMU images is covered in the Poky Reference Manual. The Poky
-MACHINE setting corresponding to the target is given in brackets.
-
-
-Hardware Reference Boards
-=========================
-
-The following boards are supported by Poky's core layer:
-
- * Texas Instruments Beagleboard (beagleboard)
- * Freescale MPC8315E-RDB (mpc8315e-rdb)
- * Ubiquiti Networks RouterStation Pro (routerstationpro)
-
-For more information see the board's section below. The Poky MACHINE setting
-corresponding to the board is given in brackets.
-
-
-Consumer Devices
-================
-
-The following consumer devices are supported by Poky's core layer:
-
- * Intel Atom based PCs and devices (atom-pc)
-
-For more information see the device's section below. The Poky MACHINE setting
-corresponding to the device is given in brackets.
-
-
-
- Specific Hardware Documentation
- ===============================
-
-
-Intel Atom based PCs and devices (atom-pc)
-==========================================
-
-The atom-pc MACHINE is tested on the following platforms:
-
- o Asus eee901
- o Acer Aspire One
- o Toshiba NB305
- o Intel Embedded Development Board 1-N450 (Black Sand)
-
-and is likely to work on many unlisted atom based devices. The MACHINE type
-supports ethernet, wifi, sound, and i915 graphics by default in addition to
-common PC input devices, busses, and so on.
-
-Depending on the device, it can boot from a traditional hard-disk, a USB device,
-or over the network. Writing poky generated images to physical media is
-straightforward with a caveat for USB devices. The following examples assume the
-target boot device is /dev/sdb, be sure to verify this and use the correct
-device as the following commands are run as root and are not reversable.
-
-Hard Disk:
- 1. Build a directdisk image format. This will generate proper partition tables
- that will in turn be written to the physical media. For example:
-
- $ bitbake core-image-minimal-directdisk
-
- 2. Use the "dd" utility to write the image to the raw block device. For example:
-
- # dd if=core-image-minimal-directdisk-atom-pc.hdddirect of=/dev/sdb
-
-USB Device:
- 1. Build an hddimg image format. This is a simple filesystem without partition
- tables and is suitable for USB keys. For example:
-
- $ bitbake core-image-minimal-live
-
- 2. Use the "dd" utility to write the image to the raw block device. For
- example:
-
- # dd if=core-image-minimal-live-atom-pc.hddimg of=/dev/sdb
-
- If the device fails to boot with "Boot error" displayed, it is likely the BIOS
- cannot understand the physical layout of the disk (or rather it expects a
- particular layout and cannot handle anything else). There are two possible
- solutions to this problem:
-
- 1. Change the BIOS USB Device setting to HDD mode. The label will vary by
- device, but the idea is to force BIOS to read the Cylinder/Head/Sector
- geometry from the device.
-
- 2. Without such an option, the BIOS generally boots the device in USB-ZIP
- mode.
-
- a. Configure the USB device for USB-ZIP mode:
-
- # mkdiskimage -4 /dev/sdb 0 63 62
-
- Where 63 and 62 are the head and sector count as reported by fdisk.
- Remove and reinsert the device to allow the kernel to detect the new
- partition layout.
-
- b. Copy the contents of the poky image to the USB-ZIP mode device:
-
- # mount -o loop core-image-minimal-live-atom-pc.hddimg /tmp/image
- # mount /dev/sdb4 /tmp/usbkey
- # cp -rf /tmp/image/* /tmp/usbkey
-
- c. Install the syslinux boot loader:
-
- # syslinux /dev/sdb4
-
- Install the boot device in the target board and configure the BIOS to boot
- from it.
-
- For more details on the USB-ZIP scenario, see the syslinux documentation:
- http://git.kernel.org/?p=boot/syslinux/syslinux.git;a=blob_plain;f=doc/usbkey.txt;hb=HEAD
-
-
-Texas Instruments Beagleboard (beagleboard)
-===========================================
-
-The Beagleboard is an ARM Cortex-A8 development board with USB, DVI-D, S-Video,
-2D/3D accelerated graphics, audio, serial, JTAG, and SD/MMC. The xM adds a
-faster CPU, more RAM, an ethernet port, more USB ports, microSD, and removes
-the NAND flash. The beagleboard MACHINE is tested on the following platforms:
-
- o Beagleboard xM
-
-TODO: need someone with a Beagleboard C4 to verify these instructions.
-
-Due to the lack of NAND on the xM, the install and boot process varies a bit
-between boards. The C4 can run the x-loader and u-boot binaries from NAND or
-the SD, while the xM can only run them from the SD. The following instructions
-apply to both the C4 and the xM, but the C4 can skip step 2 (as noted below),
-and may require modification of the NAND environment.
-
- 1. Partition and format an SD card:
- # fdisk -lu /dev/mmcblk0
-
- Disk /dev/mmcblk0: 3951 MB, 3951034368 bytes
- 255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 480 cylinders, total 7716864 sectors
- Units = sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
-
- Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
- /dev/mmcblk0p1 * 63 144584 72261 c Win95 FAT32 (LBA)
- /dev/mmcblk0p2 144585 465884 160650 83 Linux
-
- # mkfs.vfat -F 16 -n "boot" /dev/mmcblk0p1
- # mke2fs -j -L "root" /dev/mmcblk0p2
-
- The following assumes the SD card partition 1 and 2 are mounted at
- /media/boot and /media/root respectively. The files referenced here
- are made available after the build in build/tmp/deploy/images.
-
- 2. Install the boot loaders
- This step can be omitted for the C4 as it can have the x-loader and
- u-boot installed in NAND.
-
- # cp MLO-beagleboard /media/boot/MLO
- # cp u-boot-beagleboard.bin /media/boot/u-boot.bin
-
- 3. Install the root filesystem
- # tar x -C /media/root -f core-image-$IMAGE_TYPE-beagleboard.tar.bz2
- # tar x -C /media/root -f modules-$KERNEL_VERSION-beagleboard.tgz
-
- 4. Install the kernel uImage
- # cp uImage-beagleboard.bin /media/boot/uImage
-
- 5. Prepare a u-boot script to simplify the boot process
- The Beagleboard can be made to boot at this point from the u-boot command
- shell. To automate this process, generate a user.scr script as follows.
-
- Install uboot-mkimage (from uboot-mkimage on Ubuntu or uboot-tools on Fedora).
-
- Prepare a script config:
-
- # (cat << EOF
- setenv bootcmd 'mmc init; fatload mmc 0:1 0x80300000 uImage; bootm 0x80300000'
- setenv bootargs 'console=tty0 console=ttyO2,115200n8 root=/dev/mmcblk0p2 rootwait rootfstype=ext3 ro'
- boot
- EOF
- ) > serial-boot.cmd
- # mkimage -A arm -O linux -T script -C none -a 0 -e 0 -n "Poky Minimal" -d ./serial-boot.cmd ./boot.scr
- # cp boot.scr /media/boot
-
- 6. Unmount the SD partitions and boot the Beagleboard
-
-Note: As of the 2.6.37 linux-yocto kernel recipe, the Beagleboard uses the
- OMAP_SERIAL device (ttyO2). If you are using an older kernel, such as the
- 2.6.35 linux-yocto-stable, be sure replace ttyO2 with ttyS2 above. You
- should also override the machine SERIAL_CONSOLE in your local.conf in
- order to setup the getty on the serial line:
-
- SERIAL_CONSOLE_beagleboard = "115200 ttyS2"
-
-
-Freescale MPC8315E-RDB (mpc8315e-rdb)
-=====================================
-
-The MPC8315 PowerPC reference platform (MPC8315E-RDB) is aimed at hardware and
-software development of network attached storage (NAS) and digital media server
-applications. The MPC8315E-RDB features the PowerQUICC II Pro processor, which
-includes a built-in security accelerator.
-
-Setup instructions
-------------------
-
-You will need the following:
-* nfs root setup on your workstation
-* tftp server installed on your workstation
-
-Load the kernel and boot it as follows:
-
- 1. Get the kernel (uImage.mpc8315erdb) and dtb (mpc8315erdb.dtb) files from
- the Poky build tmp/deploy directory, and make them available on your tftp
- server.
-
- 2. Set up the environment in U-Boot:
-
- =>setenv ipaddr <board ip>
- =>setenv serverip <tftp server ip>
- =>setenv bootargs root=/dev/nfs rw nfsroot=<nfsroot ip>:<rootfs path> ip=<board ip>:<server ip>:<gateway ip>:255.255.255.0:mpc8315e:eth0:off console=ttyS0,115200
-
- 3. Download kernel and dtb to boot kernel.
-
- =>tftp 800000 uImage.mpc8315erdb
- =>tftp 780000 mpc8315erdb.dtb
- =>bootm 800000 - 780000
-
-
-Ubiquiti Networks RouterStation Pro (routerstationpro)
-======================================================
-
-The RouterStation Pro is an Atheros AR7161 MIPS-based board. Geared towards
-networking applications, it has all of the usual features as well as three
-type IIIA mini-PCI slots and an on-board 3-port 10/100/1000 Ethernet switch,
-in addition to the 10/100/1000 Ethernet WAN port which supports
-Power-over-Ethernet.
-
-Setup instructions
-------------------
-
-You will need the following:
-* A serial cable - female to female (or female to male + gender changer)
- NOTE: cable must be straight through, *not* a null modem cable.
-* USB flash drive or hard disk that is able to be powered from the
- board's USB port.
-* tftp server installed on your workstation
-
-NOTE: in the following instructions it is assumed that /dev/sdb corresponds
-to the USB disk when it is plugged into your workstation. If this is not the
-case in your setup then please be careful to substitute the correct device
-name in all commands where appropriate.
-
---- Preparation ---
-
-1) Build an image (e.g. core-image-minimal) using "routerstationpro" as the
-MACHINE
-
-2) Partition the USB drive so that primary partition 1 is type Linux (83).
-Minimum size depends on your root image size - core-image-minimal probably
-only needs 8-16MB, other images will need more.
-
- # fdisk /dev/sdb
- Command (m for help): p
-
- Disk /dev/sdb: 4011 MB, 4011491328 bytes
- 124 heads, 62 sectors/track, 1019 cylinders, total 7834944 sectors
- Units = sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
- Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
- I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
- Disk identifier: 0x0009e87d
-
- Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
- /dev/sdb1 62 1952751 976345 83 Linux
-
-3) Format partition 1 on the USB as ext3
-
- # mke2fs -j /dev/sdb1
-
-4) Mount partition 1 and then extract the contents of
-tmp/deploy/images/core-image-XXXX.tar.bz2 into it (preserving permissions).
-
- # mount /dev/sdb1 /media/sdb1
- # cd /media/sdb1
- # tar -xvjpf tmp/deploy/images/core-image-XXXX.tar.bz2
-
-5) Unmount the USB drive and then plug it into the board's USB port
-
-6) Connect the board's serial port to your workstation and then start up
-your favourite serial terminal so that you will be able to interact with
-the serial console. If you don't have a favourite, picocom is suggested:
-
- $ picocom /dev/ttyUSB0 -b 115200
-
-7) Connect the network into eth0 (the one that is NOT the 3 port switch). If
-you are using power-over-ethernet then the board will power up at this point.
-
-8) Start up the board, watch the serial console. Hit Ctrl+C to abort the
-autostart if the board is configured that way (it is by default). The
-bootloader's fconfig command can be used to disable autostart and configure
-the IP settings if you need to change them (default IP is 192.168.1.20).
-
-9) Make the kernel (tmp/deploy/images/vmlinux-routerstationpro.bin) available
-on the tftp server.
-
-10) If you are going to write the kernel to flash (optional - see "Booting a
-kernel directly" below for the alternative), remove the current kernel and
-rootfs flash partitions. You can list the partitions using the following
-bootloader command:
-
- RedBoot> fis list
-
-You can delete the existing kernel and rootfs with these commands:
-
- RedBoot> fis delete kernel
- RedBoot> fis delete rootfs
-
---- Booting a kernel directly ---
-
-1) Load the kernel using the following bootloader command:
-
- RedBoot> load -m tftp -h <ip of tftp server> vmlinux-routerstationpro.bin
-
-You should see a message on it being successfully loaded.
-
-2) Execute the kernel:
-
- RedBoot> exec -c "console=ttyS0,115200 root=/dev/sda1 rw rootdelay=2 board=UBNT-RSPRO"
-
-Note that specifying the command line with -c is important as linux-yocto does
-not provide a default command line.
-
---- Writing a kernel to flash ---
-
-1) Go to your tftp server and gzip the kernel you want in flash. It should
-halve the size.
-
-2) Load the kernel using the following bootloader command:
-
- RedBoot> load -r -b 0x80600000 -m tftp -h <ip of tftp server> vmlinux-routerstationpro.bin.gz
-
-This should output something similar to the following:
-
- Raw file loaded 0x80600000-0x8087c537, assumed entry at 0x80600000
-
-Calculate the length by subtracting the first number from the second number
-and then rounding the result up to the nearest 0x1000.
-
-3) Using the length calculated above, create a flash partition for the kernel:
-
- RedBoot> fis create -b 0x80600000 -l 0x240000 kernel
-
-(change 0x240000 to your rounded length -- change "kernel" to whatever
-you want to name your kernel)
-
---- Booting a kernel from flash ---
-
-To boot the flashed kernel perform the following steps.
-
-1) At the bootloader prompt, load the kernel:
-
- RedBoot> fis load -d -e kernel
-
-(Change the name "kernel" above if you chose something different earlier)
-
-(-e means 'elf', -d 'decompress')
-
-2) Execute the kernel using the exec command as above.
-
---- Automating the boot process ---
-
-After writing the kernel to flash and testing the load and exec commands
-manually, you can automate the boot process with a boot script.
-
-1) RedBoot> fconfig
- (Answer the questions not specified here as they pertain to your environment)
-2) Run script at boot: true
- Boot script:
- .. fis load -d -e kernel
- .. exec
- Enter script, terminate with empty line
- >> fis load -d -e kernel
- >> exec -c "console=ttyS0,115200 root=/dev/sda1 rw rootdelay=2 board=UBNT-RSPRO"
- >>
-3) Answer the remaining questions and write the changes to flash:
- Update RedBoot non-volatile configuration - continue (y/n)? y
- ... Erase from 0xbfff0000-0xc0000000: .
- ... Program from 0x87ff0000-0x88000000 at 0xbfff0000: .
-4) Power cycle the board.
-