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From nobody Mon Sep 17 00:00:00 2001
From: Dan Amelang <dan@amelang.net>
Date: Sun Oct 29 21:31:23 2006 0800
Subject: [PATCH] Change _cairo_fixed_from_double to use the "magic number" technique
See long thread here:
http://lists.freedesktop.org/archives/cairo/2006October/008285.html

src/cairofixed.c  48 +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
1 files changed, 47 insertions(+), 1 deletions()
d88acddcabe770e17664b34a2d5f74d3926e1642
diff git a/src/cairofixed.c b/src/cairofixed.c
index 604c9e7..fe6c2dc 100644
 a/src/cairofixed.c
+++ b/src/cairofixed.c
@@ 42,10 +42,56 @@ _cairo_fixed_from_int (int i)
return i << 16;
}
+/* This is the "magic number" approach to converting a double into fixed
+ * point as described here:
+ *
+ * http://www.stereopsis.com/sree/fpu2006.html (an overview)
+ * http://www.d6.com/users/checker/pdfs/gdmfp.pdf (in detail)
+ *
+ * The basic idea is to add a large enough number to the double that the
+ * literal floating point is moved up to the extent that it forces the
+ * double's value to be shifted down to the bottom of the mantissa (to make
+ * room for the large number being added in). Since the mantissa is, at a
+ * given moment in time, a fixed point integer itself, one can convert a
+ * float to various fixed point representations by moving around the point
+ * of a floating point number through arithmetic operations. This behavior
+ * is reliable on most modern platforms as it is mandated by the IEEE754
+ * standard for floating point arithmetic.
+ *
+ * For our purposes, a "magic number" must be carefully selected that is
+ * both large enough to produce the desired pointshifting effect, and also
+ * has no lower bits in its representation that would interfere with our
+ * value at the bottom of the mantissa. The magic number is calculated as
+ * follows:
+ *
+ * (2 ^ (MANTISSA_SIZE  FRACTIONAL_SIZE)) * 1.5
+ *
+ * where in our case:
+ *  MANTISSA_SIZE for 64bit doubles is 52
+ *  FRACTIONAL_SIZE for 16.16 fixed point is 16
+ *
+ * Although this approach provides a very large speedup of this function
+ * on a widearray of systems, it does come with two caveats:
+ *
+ * 1) It uses banker's rounding as opposed to arithmetic rounding.
+ * 2) It doesn't function properly if the FPU is in singleprecision
+ * mode.
+ */
+#define CAIRO_MAGIC_NUMBER_FIXED_16_16 (103079215104.0)
cairo_fixed_t
_cairo_fixed_from_double (double d)
{
 return (cairo_fixed_t) floor (d * 65536 + 0.5);
+ union {
+ double d;
+ int32_t i[2];
+ } u;
+
+ u.d = d + CAIRO_MAGIC_NUMBER_FIXED_16_16;
+#ifdef FLOAT_WORDS_BIGENDIAN
+ return u.i[1];
+#else
+ return u.i[0];
+#endif
}
cairo_fixed_t

1.2.6
