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authorPaul Sokolovsky <pmiscml@gmail.com>2007-12-22 16:01:48 +0000
committerPaul Sokolovsky <pmiscml@gmail.com>2007-12-22 16:01:48 +0000
commit7dcde9e396fb386265bde4efce15822fe5fdc788 (patch)
treece40e4b38c0162e2305dd975d1ad5029b52edf06
parentfd8586d37984556cc3a730995698494d824832a3 (diff)
parenta28f7719c1add024123052acc2bff773aba4b5d0 (diff)
downloadopenembedded-7dcde9e396fb386265bde4efce15822fe5fdc788.tar.gz
openembedded-7dcde9e396fb386265bde4efce15822fe5fdc788.tar.bz2
openembedded-7dcde9e396fb386265bde4efce15822fe5fdc788.zip
merge of '338f5fc9c32e401a6033a90c9d909663dc527857'
and 'a345293c1e1d325c7d86ed713f89778c64f62735'
-rw-r--r--usermanual/Makefile10
-rw-r--r--usermanual/README19
-rw-r--r--usermanual/chapters/.mtn2git_empty0
-rw-r--r--usermanual/chapters/common_use_cases.xml379
-rw-r--r--usermanual/chapters/comparing.xml51
-rw-r--r--usermanual/chapters/features.xml78
-rw-r--r--usermanual/chapters/getting_oe.xml63
-rw-r--r--usermanual/chapters/introduction.xml72
-rw-r--r--usermanual/chapters/metadata.xml129
-rw-r--r--usermanual/chapters/recipes.xml3710
-rw-r--r--usermanual/chapters/usage.xml1193
-rw-r--r--usermanual/reference/.mtn2git_empty0
-rw-r--r--usermanual/reference/class_autotools.xml153
-rw-r--r--usermanual/reference/class_binconfig.xml46
-rw-r--r--usermanual/reference/class_distutils.xml48
-rw-r--r--usermanual/reference/class_image.xml291
-rw-r--r--usermanual/reference/class_pkgconfig.xml39
-rw-r--r--usermanual/reference/class_rootfs_ipkg.xml215
-rw-r--r--usermanual/reference/class_siteinfo.xml180
-rw-r--r--usermanual/reference/class_update-alternatives.xml241
-rw-r--r--usermanual/reference/class_update-rc.d.xml133
-rw-r--r--usermanual/reference/dirs_install.xml193
-rw-r--r--usermanual/reference/dirs_staging.xml169
-rw-r--r--usermanual/reference/fakeroot.xml186
-rw-r--r--usermanual/reference/image_types.xml385
-rw-r--r--usermanual/reference/var_section.xml704
-rw-r--r--usermanual/reference/var_src_uri.xml692
-rw-r--r--usermanual/usermanual.xml685
28 files changed, 9488 insertions, 576 deletions
diff --git a/usermanual/Makefile b/usermanual/Makefile
index a8bdbc30ad..5649442ed5 100644
--- a/usermanual/Makefile
+++ b/usermanual/Makefile
@@ -2,8 +2,9 @@ topdir = .
manual = $(topdir)/usermanual.xml
# types = pdf txt rtf ps xhtml html man tex texi dvi
# types = pdf txt
-types = $(xmltotypes) $(htmltypes)
-xmltotypes = pdf txt
+types = $(xmltotypes) $(htmltypes) $(docbooktotypes)
+xmltotypes =
+docbooktotypes = dvi pdf ps rtf tex texi txt
htmltypes = html xhtml
htmlxsl = $(if $(filter $@,$(foreach type,$(htmltypes),$(type)-nochunks)),docbook-utf8.xsl,http://docbook.sourceforge.net/release/xsl/current/$@/chunk.xsl)
htmlcssfile = docbook.css
@@ -42,11 +43,14 @@ $(htmltypes): $(if $(htmlcss),$(htmlcss)) $(manual)
ifdef htmlcss
$(call command,install -m 0644 $(htmlcss) $@/$(htmlcssfile),CP $(htmlcss) $@/$(htmlcssfile))
endif
- $(call command,xsltproc --stringparam base.dir $@/ $(if $(htmlcssfile),--stringparam html.stylesheet $(htmlcssfile)) $(htmlxsl) $(manual),XSLTPROC $@ $(manual))
+ $(call command,xsltproc --param use.id.as.filename 1 --stringparam base.dir $@/ $(if $(htmlcssfile),--stringparam html.stylesheet $(htmlcssfile)) $(htmlxsl) $(manual),XSLTPROC $@ $(manual))
$(xmltotypes): $(manual)
$(call command,xmlto --extensions -o $(topdir)/$@ $@ $(manual),XMLTO $@ $(manual))
+$(docbooktotypes): $(manual)
+ $(call command,docbook2$@ $(manual),DOCBOOK2 $@ $(manual))
+
clean:
rm -rf $(cleanfiles)
diff --git a/usermanual/README b/usermanual/README
index 9f1f399a4c..f2aecf8a6e 100644
--- a/usermanual/README
+++ b/usermanual/README
@@ -1 +1,18 @@
-use 'docbook2pdf usermanual.xml' to generate a pdf version, because doing it via the Makefile doesn't work
+To generate the user-manual, run:
+
+ make <type>
+
+in this directory, where type is one of:
+
+ xhtml
+ html
+ dvi
+ pdf
+ ps
+ rtf
+ tex
+ texi
+ txt
+
+For html and xhtml you need xsltproc installed.
+For the other you need docbook-utils installed.
diff --git a/usermanual/chapters/.mtn2git_empty b/usermanual/chapters/.mtn2git_empty
new file mode 100644
index 0000000000..e69de29bb2
--- /dev/null
+++ b/usermanual/chapters/.mtn2git_empty
diff --git a/usermanual/chapters/common_use_cases.xml b/usermanual/chapters/common_use_cases.xml
new file mode 100644
index 0000000000..6526612035
--- /dev/null
+++ b/usermanual/chapters/common_use_cases.xml
@@ -0,0 +1,379 @@
+<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
+<chapter id="chapter_common_use_cases">
+ <title>Common Use-cases/tasks</title>
+
+ <section id="commonuse_new_distro">
+ <title>Creating a new Distribution</title>
+
+ <para>Creating a new distribution is not complicated, however we urge you
+ to try existing distributions first, because it's also very easy to do
+ wrong. The config need to be created in /conf/distro directory. So what
+ has to be inside? <itemizedlist>
+ <listitem>
+ <para><command>DISTRO_VERSION</command> so users will know which
+ version of distribution they use.</para>
+ </listitem>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para><command>DISTRO_TYPE</command> (release/debug) variable is
+ used in some recipes to enable/disable some features - for example
+ kernel output on screen for "debug" builds.</para>
+ </listitem>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>Type of libc used: will it be glibc
+ (<command>TARGET_OS</command> = "linux") or uclibc
+ (<command>TARGET_OS</command> = "linux-uclibc")?</para>
+ </listitem>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>Toolchain versions - for example gcc 3.4.4 based distro will
+ have: <screen>
+PREFERRED_PROVIDERS += " virtual/${TARGET_PREFIX}gcc-initial:gcc-cross-initial"
+PREFERRED_PROVIDERS += " virtual/${TARGET_PREFIX}gcc:gcc-cross"
+PREFERRED_PROVIDERS += " virtual/${TARGET_PREFIX}g++:gcc-cross"
+
+PREFERRED_VERSION_binutils = "2.16"
+PREFERRED_VERSION_binutils-cross = "2.16"
+
+PREFERRED_VERSION_gcc = "3.4.4"
+PREFERRED_VERSION_gcc-cross = "3.4.4"
+PREFERRED_VERSION_gcc-initial-cross = "3.4.4"
+ </screen></para>
+ </listitem>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para><command>DISTRO_FEATURES</command> which describe which
+ features distro has. More about it in <link
+ linkend="task-base">task-base</link> section.</para>
+ </listitem>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>Versions of kernels used for supported devices: <screen>
+PREFERRED_VERSION_linux-omap1_omap5912osk ?= "2.6.18+git"
+PREFERRED_VERSION_linux-openzaurus ?= "2.6.17"
+ </screen></para>
+ </listitem>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>To get more stable build it is good to make use of
+ sane-srcdates.inc file which contain working SRCDATE for many of
+ floating recipes. <screen>
+require conf/distro/include/sane-srcdates.inc
+ </screen> It also should have global <command>SRCDATE</command>
+ value set (format is ISO date: YYYYMMDD): <screen>
+SRCDATE = "20061014"
+ </screen></para>
+ </listitem>
+ </itemizedlist></para>
+ </section>
+
+ <section id="commonuse_new_machine">
+ <title>Adding a new Machine</title>
+
+ <para>To be able to build for device OpenEmbedded have to know it, so
+ machine config file need to be written. All those configs are stored in
+ /conf/machine/ directory.</para>
+
+ <para>As usual some variables are required: <itemizedlist>
+ <listitem>
+ <para><command>TARGET_ARCH</command> which describe which CPU
+ architecture does machine use.</para>
+ </listitem>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para><command>MACHINE_FEATURES</command> which describe which
+ features device has. More about it in <link
+ linkend="task-base">task-base</link> section.</para>
+ </listitem>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para><command>PREFERRED_PROVIDER_virtual/kernel</command> has to
+ point into proper kernel recipe for this machine.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </itemizedlist></para>
+
+ <para>Next kernel recipe needs to be added.</para>
+ </section>
+
+ <section id="commonuse_new_package">
+ <title>Adding a new Package</title>
+
+ <para>This section is a stub, help us by expanding it</para>
+ </section>
+
+ <section id="commonuse_new_image">
+ <title>Creating your own image</title>
+
+ <para>Creating own image is easy - only few variables needs to be set:
+ <itemizedlist>
+ <listitem>
+ <para><command>IMAGE_BASENAME</command> to give a name for your own
+ image</para>
+ </listitem>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para><command>PACKAGE_INSTALL</command> to give a list of packages
+ to install into the image</para>
+ </listitem>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para><command>RDEPENDS</command> to give a list of recipes which
+ are needed to be built to create this image</para>
+ </listitem>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para><command>IMAGE_LINGUAS</command> is an optional list of
+ languages which has to be installed into the image</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </itemizedlist> Then adding of the <emphasis>image</emphasis> class use:
+ <screen>
+inherit image
+</screen> And the image recipe is ready for usage.</para>
+ </section>
+
+ <section id="commonuse_prebuilt_toolchain">
+ <title>Using a prebuilt toolchain to create your packages</title>
+
+ <para>It might be necessary to integrate a prebuilt toolchain and other
+ libraries but still be use OpenEmbedded to build packages. One of many
+ approaches is shown and discussed here.</para>
+
+ <section>
+ <title>The toolchain</title>
+
+ <para>We assume the toolchain provides a C and C++ compiler, an
+ assembler and other tools to build packages. The list below shows a gcc
+ 3.4.4 toolchain for ARM architectures using glibc. We assume that the
+ toolchain is in your <command>PATH</command>.</para>
+
+ <screen>
+<command>ls</command> pre-built/cross/bin
+
+arm-linux-g++
+arm-linux-ld
+arm-linux-ranlib
+arm-linux-ar
+arm-linux-g77
+arm-linux-readelf
+arm-linux-as
+arm-linux-gcc
+arm-linux-gcc-3.4.4
+arm-linux-c++
+arm-linux-size
+arm-linux-c++filt
+arm-linux-nm
+arm-linux-strings
+arm-linux-cpp
+arm-linux-objcopy
+arm-linux-strip
+arm-linux-objdump
+</screen>
+ </section>
+
+ <section>
+ <title>The prebuilt libraries</title>
+
+ <para>We need the header files and the libraries itself. The following
+ directory layout is assume. <command>PRE_BUILT</command> has two
+ subdirectories one is called <emphasis>include</emphasis> and holds the
+ header files and the other directory is called <emphasis>lib</emphasis>
+ and holds the shared and static libraries. Additionally a Qt2 directory
+ is present having a <emphasis>include</emphasis> and
+ <emphasis>lib</emphasis> sub-directory.</para>
+
+ <screen>
+<command>ls</command> $PRE_BUILT
+include
+lib
+qt2
+</screen>
+ </section>
+
+ <section>
+ <title>Setting up OpenEmbedded</title>
+
+ <para>OpenEmbedded will be setup here. We assume that your machine and
+ distribution is not part of OpenEmbedded and they will be created ad-hoc
+ in the <emphasis>local.conf</emphasis> file. You will need to have
+ <application>BitBake</application> and a current OpenEmbedded version
+ available.</para>
+
+ <section>
+ <title>Sourcable script</title>
+
+ <para>To ease the usage of OpenEmbedded we start by creating a
+ source-able script. This is actually a small variation from the
+ already seen script. We will name it <emphasis>build_source</emphasis>
+ and you will need to source it.</para>
+
+ <screen>
+BITBAKE_PATH=/where/is/bitbake/bin
+TOOLCHAIN=/where/is/toolchain/bin
+HOST_TOOLS=/where/is/hosttools/bin
+export PRE_BUILT=/where/is/pre-built
+
+export PATH=$BITBAKE_PATH:$TOOLCHAIN:$HOST_TOOLS:$PATH
+export OEDIR=$PWD
+export LOCALDIR=$PWD/secret-isv
+ </screen>
+
+ <para>Use <command>source build_source</command> to source the script,
+ use <command>env</command> to check that the variable where
+ exported.</para>
+ </section>
+
+ <section>
+ <title>Creating the local.conf</title>
+
+ <para>We will configure OpenEmbedded now, it is very similar to what
+ we have done above.</para>
+
+ <screen>
+DL_DIR = "${OEDIR}/sources"
+BBFILES := "${OEDIR}/openembedded/packages/*/*.bb ${LOCALDIR}/packages/*/*.bb"
+BBFILE_COLLECTIONS = "upstream local"
+BBFILE_PATTERN_upstream = "^${OEDIR}/openembedded/packages/"
+BBFILE_PATTERN_local = "^${LOCALDIR}/packages/"
+BBFILE_PRIORITY_upstream = "5"
+BBFILE_PRIORITY_local = "10"
+BBMASK = ""
+ </screen>
+
+ <para>${OEDIR}/openembedded will be a upstream release of
+ OpenEmbedded. Above we have assumed it is in the current working
+ directory. Additionally we have a ${LOCALDIR}, we combine these two
+ directories as a special <link linkend="collections">BitBake
+ Collection</link>.</para>
+
+ <screen>
+#
+# machine stuff
+#
+MACHINE = "secret-killer"
+PACKAGE_EXTRA_ARCHS = "armv4 armv4t armv5te iwmmxt xscale""
+TARGET_CC_ARCH = "-mcpu=xscale -mtune=iwmmxt"
+TARGET_ARCH = "arm"
+PACKAGE_ARCH="xscale"
+ </screen>
+
+ <para>We tell OpenEmbedded that we build for the ARM platform and
+ optimize for xscale and iwmmxt.</para>
+
+ <screen>
+INHERIT += " package_ipk debian"
+TARGET_OS = "linux"
+TARGET_FPU = "soft"
+DISTRO = "secret-disro"
+DISTRO_NAME = "secret-distro"
+DISTRO_VERSION = "x.y.z"
+DISTRO_TYPE = "release"
+ </screen>
+
+ <para>Create a distribution ad-hoc as well. We tell OpenEmbedded that
+ we build for linux and glibc using soft float as fpu. If your
+ toolchain is a uclibc toolchain you will need to set
+ <command>TARGET_OS</command> to linux-uclibc.</para>
+
+ <screen>
+export CC = "${CCACHE}arm-linux-gcc-3.4.4 ${HOST_CC_ARCH}"
+export CXX = "${CCACHE}arm-linux-g++ ${HOST_CC_ARCH}"
+export CPP = "arm-linux-gcc-3.4.4 -E"
+export LD = "arm-linux-ld"
+export AR = "arm-linux-ar"
+export AS = "arm-linux-as"
+export RANLIB = "arm-linux-ranlib"
+export STRIP = "arm-linux-strip"
+ </screen>
+
+ <para>The above variables replace the ones from
+ <emphasis>bitbake.conf</emphasis>. This will make OpenEmbedded use the
+ prebuilt toolchain.</para>
+
+ <screen>
+#
+# point OE to the lib and include directory
+#
+TARGET_CPPFLAGS_append = " -I${PRE_BUILT}/include "
+TARGET_LDFLAGS_prepend = " -L${PRE_BUILT}/qt2/lib -L${PRE_BUILT}/lib \
+-Wl,-rpath-link,${PRE_BUILT}/lib -Wl,-rpath-link,${PRE_BUILT}/qt2/lib "
+
+# special to Qt/Qtopia
+QTDIR = "${PRE_BUILT}/qt2"
+QPEDIR = "${PRE_BUILT}"
+palmtopdir = "/opt/Qtopia"
+palmqtdir = "/opt/Qtopia"
+ </screen>
+
+ <para>We will add the <command>PRE_BUILT</command> libraries to the
+ include and library paths. And the same is done for the special
+ version of Qt we have in your <command>PRE_BUILT</command>
+ directory.</para>
+
+ <screen>
+ASSUME_PROVIDED += " virtual/${TARGET_PREFIX}gcc "
+ASSUME_PROVIDED += " virtual/libc "
+ASSUME_PROVIDED += " virtual/qte "
+ASSUME_PROVIDED += " virtual/libqpe "
+ASSUME_PROVIDED += " libqpe-opie "
+ </screen>
+
+ <para>Now we have told <application>BitBake</application> that the C
+ library, compiler and Qtopia is already provided. These lines will
+ avoid building binutils, gcc initial, glibc, gcc.</para>
+
+ <screen>
+<command>source</command> build_source
+<command>bitbake</command> your-killer-app
+ </screen>
+
+ <para>You should be able to create the packages you want to using the
+ prebuilt toolchain now.</para>
+ </section>
+ </section>
+
+ <section>
+ <title>Useful hints</title>
+
+ <para>If you have more prebuilt libraries you need to add additional
+ <command>ASSUME_PROVIDED</command> lines to your
+ <emphasis>local.conf</emphasis>. Using <command>bitbake -vvv
+ PACKAGE</command> you can easily see the package names you could
+ <command>ASSUME_PROVIDED</command> if you have some prebuilt.</para>
+ </section>
+
+ <section>
+ <title>Issues with this approach</title>
+
+ <screen>
+NOTE: Couldn't find shared library provider for libqtopia.so.1
+NOTE: Couldn't find shared library provider for libqtopia2.so.2
+NOTE: Couldn't find shared library provider for libqpe.so.1
+NOTE: Couldn't find shared library provider for libpthread.so.0
+NOTE: Couldn't find shared library provider for libstdc++.so.6
+NOTE: Couldn't find shared library provider for libqte.so.2
+NOTE: Couldn't find shared library provider for libgcc_s.so.1
+NOTE: Couldn't find shared library provider for libc.so.6
+NOTE: Couldn't find shared library provider for libm.so.6
+</screen>
+
+ <para>OpenEmbedded tries to automatically add run-time dependencies
+ (RDEPENDS) to the package. It uses the <emphasis><link
+ linkend="shlibs">shlibs</link></emphasis> system to do add them, in this
+ case it was not able to find packages providing these libraries as they
+ are prebuilt. This means they will not be added to the RDEPENDS of the
+ just created package. The result can be fatal. If you use OpenEmbedded
+ to create images you will end up with a image without a libc being
+ installed. This will lead to a fatal failure. To workaround this issue
+ you could create a package for the metadata to install every needed
+ library and use ${BOOTSTRAP_EXTRA_RDEPENDS} to make sure this package is
+ installed when creating images.</para>
+ </section>
+ </section>
+
+ <section id="commonuse_new_package_format">
+ <title>Using a new package format</title>
+
+ <para>This section is a stub, help us by expanding it</para>
+ </section>
+</chapter> \ No newline at end of file
diff --git a/usermanual/chapters/comparing.xml b/usermanual/chapters/comparing.xml
new file mode 100644
index 0000000000..1347010977
--- /dev/null
+++ b/usermanual/chapters/comparing.xml
@@ -0,0 +1,51 @@
+<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
+<chapter id="chapter_comparing">
+ <title>Comparing</title>
+
+ <section id="comparing_buildroot">
+ <title>buildroot</title>
+
+ <para>Writing of <application>BitBake</application> recipes is more easy
+ and more intuitive than writing Makefiles while providing higher
+ flexibility. This allows you to tweak specific recipes for your very
+ special needs and to add new recipes very fast. You can build toolchains,
+ Software Distribution Kits (SDKs), complete Distributions or just single
+ packages. The flexibility of OpenEmbedded allows you to reuse the once
+ written recipes for many different purposes. OpenEmbedded provides
+ everything buildroot will be able to provide. But in contrast to buildroot
+ OpenEmbedded will allow you to achieve what you really want to achieve.
+ You can add new package formats, new filesystems, new output formats
+ easily. OpenEmbedded will suit your need.</para>
+ </section>
+
+ <section id="comparing_crosstool">
+ <title>crosstool</title>
+
+ <para>Crosstool allows to create toolchains for you. It can only create
+ the initial toolchain for you. It will not compile other needed libraries
+ or applications for you, it will not be able to track dependencies or to
+ package them properly. OpenEmbedded supports all configurations crosstool
+ supports. You can start to create toolchains with OpenEmbedded, then as
+ your needs grow create a more complete SDK from already present base
+ libraries and applications and if you recognize you need to have packages
+ for the target you have them almost built already.</para>
+ </section>
+
+ <section id="comparing_handmade">
+ <title>handmade</title>
+
+ <para>Cross-compilation is a tough business. It is not that
+ cross-compiling is hard itself but many people misuse the buildsystem they
+ use to build their software. This will lead to a variety of issues you can
+ run into. This can be failing tests on configuration because of executing
+ cross compiled binaries or crashes at run-time due wrong sizes of basic
+ types. When utilizing OpenEmbedded you avoid searching for patches at many
+ different places and will be able to get things done more quickly.
+ <application>OpenEmbedded</application> allows you to choose from a pool
+ of ready to use software packages.</para>
+
+ <para>OpenEmbedded will create complete flashable images using different
+ output formats and filesystems. This allows you to create complete and
+ specialized distributions easily.</para>
+ </section>
+</chapter> \ No newline at end of file
diff --git a/usermanual/chapters/features.xml b/usermanual/chapters/features.xml
new file mode 100644
index 0000000000..8eecaa9ed4
--- /dev/null
+++ b/usermanual/chapters/features.xml
@@ -0,0 +1,78 @@
+<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
+<chapter id="chapter_special_features">
+ <title>Special features</title>
+
+ <section id="special_debian_naming">
+ <title>Debian package naming <anchor id="debian" /></title>
+
+ <screen>INHERIT += "debian"</screen>
+
+ <para>Placing the above line into your <emphasis>${DISTRO}.conf</emphasis>
+ or <emphasis>local.conf</emphasis> will trigger renaming of packages if
+ they only ship one library. Imagine a package where the package name
+ (<command>PN</command>) is foo and this packages ships a file named
+ <command>libfoo.so.1.2.3</command>. Now this package will be renamed to
+ <command>libfoo1</command> to follow the Debian package naming
+ policy.</para>
+ </section>
+
+ <section id="special_shlibs">
+ <title>Shared Library handling (shlibs) <anchor id="shlibs" /></title>
+
+ <para>Run-time Dependencies (<command>RDEPENDS</command>) will be added
+ when packaging the software. They should only contain the minimal
+ dependencies to run the program. OpenEmbedded will analyze each packaged
+ binary and search for <command>SO_NEEDED</command> libraries. The
+ libraries are absolutely required by the program then OpenEmbedded is
+ searching for packages that installs these libraries. these packages are
+ automatically added to the <command>RDEPENDS</command>. As a packager you
+ don't need to worry about shared libraries anymore they will be added
+ automatically.</para>
+
+ <remark>NOTE: This does not apply to plug-ins used by the
+ program.</remark>
+ </section>
+
+ <section id="special_bitbake_collections">
+ <title>BitBake Collections <anchor id="collections" /></title>
+
+ <para>This section is a stub, help us by expanding it</para>
+
+ <para><screen>
+BBFILES := "${OEDIR}/openembedded/packages/*/*.bb ${LOCALDIR}/packages/*/*.bb"
+BBFILE_COLLECTIONS = "upstream local"
+BBFILE_PATTERN_upstream = "^${OEDIR}/openembedded/packages/"
+BBFILE_PATTERN_local = "^${LOCALDIR}/packages/"
+BBFILE_PRIORITY_upstream = "5"
+BBFILE_PRIORITY_local = "10"
+</screen></para>
+ </section>
+
+ <section id="special_task_base">
+ <title>Task-base <anchor id="task-base" /></title>
+
+ <para>Task-base is new way of creating basic root filesystems. Instead of
+ having each machine setting a ton of duplicate variables, this allow a
+ machine to specify its features and <command>task-base</command> builds it
+ a customised package based on what the machine needs along with what the
+ distro supports.</para>
+
+ <para>To illustrate, the distro config file can say: <screen>
+DISTRO_FEATURES = "nfs smbfs ipsec wifi ppp alsa bluetooth ext2 irda pcmcia usbgadget usbhost"
+</screen> and the machine config: <screen>
+MACHINE_FEATURES = "kernel26 apm alsa pcmcia bluetooth irda usbgadget"
+</screen> and the resulting <command>task-base</command> would support pcmcia
+ but not usbhost.</para>
+
+ <para>Task-base details exactly which options are either machine or distro
+ settings (or need to be in both). Machine options are meant to reflect
+ capabilities of the machine, distro options list things distribution
+ maintainers might want to add or remove from their distros images.</para>
+ </section>
+
+ <section id="special_overrides">
+ <title>Overrides <anchor id="overrides" /></title>
+
+ <para>This section is a stub, help us by expanding it</para>
+ </section>
+</chapter> \ No newline at end of file
diff --git a/usermanual/chapters/getting_oe.xml b/usermanual/chapters/getting_oe.xml
new file mode 100644
index 0000000000..eb9aaf6a8f
--- /dev/null
+++ b/usermanual/chapters/getting_oe.xml
@@ -0,0 +1,63 @@
+<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
+<chapter id="chapter_getting_oe">
+ <title>Getting OpenEmbedded</title>
+
+ <section id="gettingoe_getting_bitbake">
+ <title>Getting <application>BitBake</application></title>
+
+ <para>The required version of <application>BitBake</application> is
+ changing rapidly. At the time of writing (30th of June 2007)
+ <application>BitBake</application> 1.8.2 was required.</para>
+
+ <para>A safe method is to get the <application>BitBake</application> from
+ a stable Subversion branch (those with an even minor number). <screen>
+<command>svn</command> co http://svn.berlios.de/svnroot/repos/bitbake/branches/bitbake-1.8
+...
+A bitbake-1.8/classes/base.bbclass
+U bitbake-1.8
+At revision 827.
+ </screen> <application>BitBake</application> is checked out now;
+ this completes the first and most critical dependency of OpenEmbedded.
+ Issuing <command>svn</command> <command>up</command> in the
+ <emphasis>bitbake-1.8</emphasis> directory will update
+ <application>BitBake</application> to the latest stable version, but
+ generally it is a good idea to stick with a specific known working version
+ of <application>BitBake</application> until OpenEmbedded asks you to
+ upgrade.</para>
+ </section>
+
+ <section id="gettingoe_getting_oe">
+ <title>Getting OpenEmbedded</title>
+
+ <para>The OpenEmbedded metadata has a high rate of development, so it's a
+ good idea to stay up to date. You'll need monotone 0.28 to get the
+ metadata and stay up to date. Monotone is available in most distributions
+ and has binaries at <ulink url="http://venge.net/monotone/">Monotone
+ homepage</ulink>.</para>
+
+ <para>Next step is getting snapshot of database. <screen>
+wget http://openembedded.org/snapshots/OE.mtn.bz2 http://openembedded.org/snapshots/OE.mtn.bz2.md5
+</screen> Or if you have monotone 0.30 or later: <screen>
+wget http://www.openembedded.org/snapshots/OE-this-is-for-mtn-0.30.mtn.bz2
+wget http://www.openembedded.org/snapshots/OE-this-is-for-mtn-0.30.mtn.bz2.md5
+</screen> Then verify integrity of snapshot by checking md5sum. <screen>
+md5sum -c OE.mtn.bz2.md5sum
+</screen> Then unpack database. <screen>
+bunzip OE.mtn.bz2
+</screen> Finally checkout the development branch. <screen>
+mtn --db=OE.mtn co -b org.openembedded.dev
+</screen></para>
+ </section>
+
+ <section id="gettingoe_configuring_oe">
+ <title>Configuring OpenEmbedded</title>
+
+ <para>This section is a stub, help us by expanding it</para>
+ </section>
+
+ <section id="gettingoe_building_software">
+ <title>Building Software</title>
+
+ <para>This section is a stub, help us by expanding it</para>
+ </section>
+</chapter> \ No newline at end of file
diff --git a/usermanual/chapters/introduction.xml b/usermanual/chapters/introduction.xml
new file mode 100644
index 0000000000..b218cb596c
--- /dev/null
+++ b/usermanual/chapters/introduction.xml
@@ -0,0 +1,72 @@
+<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
+<chapter id="chapter_introduction">
+ <title>Introduction</title>
+
+ <section id="intro_overview">
+ <title>Overview</title>
+
+ <para>Like any build tool (make, ant, jam), the OpenEmbedded build tool
+ BitBake controls how to build things and the build dependencies. But
+ unlike single project tools like <command>make</command> it is not based
+ on one makefile or a closed set of inter-dependent makefiles, but collects
+ and manages an open set of largely independent build descriptions (package
+ recipes) and builds them in proper order.</para>
+
+ <para>To be more precise: <ulink
+ url="http://www.openembedded.org"><application>OpenEmbedded</application></ulink>
+ is a set of metadata used to cross-compile, package and install software
+ packages. <application>OpenEmbedded</application> is being used to build
+ and maintain a number of embedded Linux distributions, including
+ OpenZaurus, Angström, Familiar and SlugOS.</para>
+
+ <para>The primary use-case of <application>OpenEmbedded</application> are:
+ <itemizedlist>
+ <listitem>
+ <para>Handle cross-compilation.</para>
+ </listitem>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>Handle inter-package dependencies</para>
+ </listitem>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>Must be able to emit packages (tar, rpm, ipk)</para>
+ </listitem>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>Must be able to create images and feeds from packages</para>
+ </listitem>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>Must be highly configurable to support many machines,
+ distribution and architectures.</para>
+ </listitem>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>Writing of metadata must be easy and reusable</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </itemizedlist></para>
+
+ <para>Together with <ulink
+ url="http://bitbake.berlios.de/manual"><application>BitBake</application></ulink>,
+ OpenEmbedded satisfies all these and many more. Flexibility and power have
+ always been the priorities.</para>
+ </section>
+
+ <section id="intro_history">
+ <title>History</title>
+
+ <para>OpenEmbedded was invented and founded by the creators of the
+ OpenZaurus project. At this time the project had pushed
+ <emphasis>buildroot</emphasis> to its limits. It supported the creation of
+ <emphasis>ipk</emphasis> packages, feeds and images and had support for
+ more than one machine. But it was impossible to use different patches,
+ files for different architectures, machines or distributions. To overcome
+ this shortcoming OpenEmbedded was created.</para>
+
+ <para>After a few months other projects started using OpenEmbedded and
+ contributing back. On 7 December 2004 Chris Larson split the project into
+ two parts: BitBake, a generic task executor and OpenEmbedded, the metadata
+ for BitBake.</para>
+ </section>
+</chapter> \ No newline at end of file
diff --git a/usermanual/chapters/metadata.xml b/usermanual/chapters/metadata.xml
new file mode 100644
index 0000000000..f4cf3bc5e6
--- /dev/null
+++ b/usermanual/chapters/metadata.xml
@@ -0,0 +1,129 @@
+<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
+<chapter id="chapter_metadata">
+ <title>Metadata</title>
+
+ <section id="metadata_file_layout">
+ <title>File Layout</title>
+
+ <para>OpenEmbedded has six directories three of them hold
+ <application>BitBake</application> metadata.</para>
+
+ <para>The <emphasis>conf</emphasis> directory is holding the bitbake.conf,
+ machine and distribution configuration. bitbake.conf is read when
+ <application>BitBake</application> is started and this will include among
+ others a local.conf the machine and distribution configuration files.
+ These files will be searched in the <command>BBPATH</command> environment
+ variable.</para>
+
+ <para><emphasis>classes</emphasis> is the directory holding
+ <application>BitBake</application> bbclass. These classes can be inherited
+ by the <application>BitBake</application> files. BitBake automatically
+ inherits the base.bbclass on every parsed file. <command>BBPATH</command>
+ is used to find the class.</para>
+
+ <para>In <emphasis>packages</emphasis> the
+ <application>BitBake</application> files are stored. For each task or
+ application we have a directory. These directories store the real
+ <application>BitBake</application> files. They are the ones ending with
+ <emphasis>.bb</emphasis>. And for each application and version we have
+ one.</para>
+ </section>
+
+ <section id="metadata_syntax">
+ <title>Syntax</title>
+
+ <para>OpenEmbedded has files ending with <emphasis>.conf</emphasis>,
+ <emphasis>.inc</emphasis>, <emphasis>.bb</emphasis>
+ and<emphasis>.bbclass</emphasis>. The syntax and semantic of these files
+ are best described in the <ulink
+ url="http://bitbake.berlios.de/manual"><application>BitBake</application>
+ manual</ulink>.</para>
+ </section>
+
+ <section id="metadata_classes">
+ <title>Classes</title>
+
+ <para>OpenEmbedded provides special <application>BitBake</application>
+ classes to ease compiling, packaging and other things. FIXME.</para>
+ </section>
+
+ <section id="metadata_writing_data">
+ <title>Writing Meta Data (Adding packages)</title>
+
+ <para>This page will guide you trough the effort of writing a .bb file or
+ <emphasis>recipe</emphasis> in BitBake speak.</para>
+
+ <para>Let's start with the easy stuff, like the package description,
+ license, etc: <screen>
+DESCRIPTION = "My first application, a really cool app containing lots of foo and bar"
+LICENSE = "GPLv2"
+HOMEPAGE = "http://www.host.com/foo/"
+ </screen> The description and license fields are mandatory, so
+ better check them twice.</para>
+
+ <para>The next step is to specify what the package needs to build and run,
+ the so called <emphasis>dependencies</emphasis>: <screen>
+DEPENDS = "gtk+"
+RDEPENDS = "cool-ttf-fonts"
+ </screen> The package needs gtk+ to build ('DEPENDS') and
+ requires the 'cool-ttf-fonts' package to run ('RDEPENDS'). OE will add
+ run-time dependencies on libraries on its own via the so called
+ <emphasis>shlibs</emphasis>-code, but you need to specify everything other
+ by yourself, which in this case is the 'cool-ttf-fonts' package.</para>
+
+ <para>After entering all this OE will know what to build before trying to
+ build your application, but it doesn't know where to get it yet. So let's
+ add the source location: <screen>
+SRC_URI = "http://www.host.com/foo/files/${P}.tar.bz2;md5sum=yoursum"
+ </screen> This will tell the fetcher to where to download the
+ sources from and it will check the integrity using md5sum if you provided
+ the appropriate <emphasis>yoursum</emphasis>. You can make one by doing
+ <screen>md5sum foo-1.9.tar.bz2</screen> and replacing
+ <emphasis>yoursum</emphasis> with the md5sum on your screen. A typical
+ md5sum will look like this: <screen>a6434b0fc8a54c3dec3d6875bf3be8mtn </screen>Notice
+ the <emphasis>${P}</emphasis> variable, that one holds the package name,
+ <emphasis>${PN}</emphasis> in BitBake speak and the package version,
+ <emphasis>${PV}</emphasis> in BitBake speak. It's a short way of writing
+ <emphasis>${PN}-${PV}</emphasis>. Using this notation means you can copy
+ the recipe when a new version is released without having to alter the
+ contents. You do need to check if everything is still correct, because new
+ versions mean new bugs.</para>
+
+ <para>Before we can move to the actual building we need to find out which
+ build system the package is using. If we're lucky, we see a
+ <emphasis>configure</emphasis> file in the build tree this is an indicator
+ that we can <emphasis>inherit autotools</emphasis> if we see a
+ <emphasis>.pro</emphasis> file, it might be qmake, which needs
+ <emphasis>inherit qmake</emphasis>. Virtually all gtk apps use autotools:
+ <screen>
+inherit autotools pkgconfig
+ </screen> We are in luck! The package is a well-behaved
+ application using autotools and pkgconfig to configure and build it
+ self.</para>
+
+ <para>Lets start the build: <screen>
+<command>bitbake</command> foo
+ </screen> Depending on what you have built before and the
+ speed of your computer this can take a few seconds to a few hours, so be
+ prepared.</para>
+
+ <para>.... some time goes by .....</para>
+
+ <para>Your screen should now have something like this on it: <screen>
+NOTE: package foo-1.9-r0: task do_build: completed
+NOTE: package foo-1.9: completed
+NOTE: build 200605052219: completed
+ </screen></para>
+
+ <para>All looks well, but wait, let's scroll up: <screen>
+NOTE: the following files where installed but not shipped:
+ /usr/weirdpath/importantfile.foo
+ </screen> OE has a standard list of paths which need to be
+ included, but it can't know everything, so we have to tell OE to include
+ that file as well: <screen>
+FILES_${PN} += "/usr/weirdpath/importantfile.foo"
+ </screen> It's important to use <emphasis>+=</emphasis> so it
+ will get appended to the standard file-list, not replace the standard
+ one.</para>
+ </section>
+</chapter> \ No newline at end of file
diff --git a/usermanual/chapters/recipes.xml b/usermanual/chapters/recipes.xml
new file mode 100644
index 0000000000..c1ca456fa0
--- /dev/null
+++ b/usermanual/chapters/recipes.xml
@@ -0,0 +1,3710 @@
+<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
+<chapter id="chapter_recipes" xreflabel="Recipes chapter">
+ <title>Recipes</title>
+
+ <section id="recipes_introduction" xreflabel="introduction">
+ <title>Introduction</title>
+
+ <para>A bitbake recipe is a set of instructions that describe what needs
+ to be done to retrieve the source code for some application, apply any
+ necessary patches, provide any additional files (such as init scripts),
+ compile it, install it and generated binary packages. The end result is a
+ binary package that you can install on your target device, and maybe some
+ intermediate files, such as libraries and headers, which can be used when
+ building other application.</para>
+
+ <para>In many ways the process is similar to creating .deb or .rpm
+ packages for your standard desktop distributions with one major difference
+ - in OpenEmbedded everything is being cross-compiled. This often makes the
+ task far more difficult (depending on how well suited the application is
+ to cross compiling), then it is for other packaging systems and sometime
+ impossible.</para>
+
+ <para>This chapter assumes that you are familiar with working with
+ bitbake, including the work flow, required directory structures, bitbake
+ configuration and the use of monotone. If you are not familiar with these
+ then first take a look at the chapter on bitbake usage.</para>
+ </section>
+
+ <section id="recipes_syntax" xreflabel="syntax">
+ <title>Syntax of recipes</title>
+
+ <para>The basic items that make up a bitbake recipe file are:</para>
+
+ <variablelist>
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>functions</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>Functions provide a series of actions to be performed.
+ Functions are usually used to override the default implementation of
+ a task function, or to compliment (append or prepend to an existing
+ function) a default function. Standard functions use sh shell
+ syntax, although access to OpenEmbedded variables and internal
+ methods is also available.</para>
+
+ <para>The following is an example function from the sed
+ recipe:</para>
+
+ <para><screen>do_install () {
+ autotools_do_install
+ install -d ${D}${base_bindir}
+ mv ${D}${bindir}/sed ${D}${base_bindir}/sed.${PN}
+}</screen>It is also possible to implement new functions, that are not
+ replacing or complimenting the default functions, which are called
+ between existing tasks. It is also possible to implement functions
+ in python instead of sh. Both of these options are not seen in the
+ majority of recipes.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>variable assignments and manipulations</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>Variable assignments allow a value to be assigned to a
+ variable. The assignment may be static text or might include the
+ contents of other variables. In addition to assignment, appending
+ and prepending operations are also supported.</para>
+
+ <para>The follow example shows the some of the ways variables can be
+ used in recipes:<screen>S = "${WORKDIR}/postfix-${PV}"
+PR = "r4"
+CFLAGS += "-DNO_ASM"
+SRC_URI_append = "file://fixup.patch;patch=1"</screen></para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>keywords</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>Only a few keywords are used in bitbake recipes. They are used
+ for things such as including common functions
+ (<emphasis>inherit</emphasis>), loading parts of a recipe from other
+ files (<emphasis>include</emphasis> and
+ <emphasis>require</emphasis>) and exporting variables to the
+ environment (export).</para>
+
+ <para>The following example shows the use of some of these
+ keywords:<screen>export POSTCONF = "${STAGING_BINDIR}/postconf"
+inherit autoconf
+require otherfile.inc</screen></para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>comments</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>Any lines that begin with a # are treated as comment lines and
+ are ignored.<screen># This is a comment</screen></para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+ </variablelist>
+
+ <para>The following is a summary of the most important (and most commonly
+ used) parts of the recipe syntax:</para>
+
+ <variablelist>
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>Line continuation: \</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>To split a line over multiple lines you should place a \ at
+ the end of the line that is to be continued on the next line.</para>
+
+ <screen>VAR = "A really long \
+ line"</screen>
+
+ <para>Note that there must not be anything (no spaces or tabs) after
+ the \.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>Comments: #</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>Any lines beginning with a # are comments and will be
+ ignored.<screen># This is a comment</screen></para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>Using variables: ${...}</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>To access the contents of a variable you need to access it via
+ <emphasis>${&lt;varname&gt;}</emphasis>:<screen>SRC_URI = "${SOURCEFORGE_MIRROR}/libpng/zlib-${PV}.tar.gz"</screen></para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>Quote all assignments</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>All variable assignments should be quoted with double quotes.
+ (It may work without them at present, but it will not work in the
+ future).<screen>VAR1 = "${OTHERVAR}"
+VAR2 = "The version is ${PV}"</screen></para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>Conditional assignment</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>Conditional assignement is used to assign a value to a
+ variable, but only when the variable is currently unset. This is
+ commonly used to provide a default value for use when no specific
+ definition is provided by the machine or distro configuration of the
+ users local.conf configuration.</para>
+
+ <para>The following example:<screen>VAR1 ?= "New value"</screen>will
+ set <emphasis role="bold">VAR1</emphasis> to <emphasis>"New
+ value"</emphasis> if its currently empty. However if it was already
+ set it would be unchanged. In the following <emphasis
+ role="bold">VAR1</emphasis> is left with the value
+ <emphasis>"Original value"</emphasis>:<screen>VAR1 = "Original value"
+VAR1 ?= "New value"</screen></para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>Appending: +=</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>You can append values to existing variables using the
+ <emphasis>+=</emphasis> operator. Note that this operator will add a
+ space between the existing content of the variable and the new
+ content.<screen>SRC_URI += "file://fix-makefile.patch;patch=1"</screen></para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>Prepending: =+</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>You can prepend values to existing variables using the
+ <emphasis>=+</emphasis> operator. Note that this operator will add a
+ space between the new content and the existing content of the
+ variable.<screen>VAR =+ "Starts"</screen></para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>Appending: _append</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>You can append values to existing variables using the
+ <emphasis>_append</emphasis> method. Note that this operator does
+ not add any additional space, and it is applied after all the
+ <emphasis>+=</emphasis>, and <emphasis>=+</emphasis> operators have
+ been applied.</para>
+
+ <para>The following example show the space being explicitly added to
+ the start to ensure the appended value is not merged with the
+ existing value:<screen>SRC_URI_append = " file://fix-makefile.patch;patch=1"</screen>The
+ <emphasis>_append</emphasis> method can also be used with overrides,
+ which result in the actions only being performed for the specified
+ target or machine: [TODO: Link to section on overrides]<screen>SRC_URI_append_sh4 = " file://fix-makefile.patch;patch=1"</screen>Note
+ that the appended information is a variable itself, and therefore
+ it's possible to used <emphasis>+=</emphasis> or
+ <emphasis>=+</emphasis> to assign variables to the
+ <emphasis>_append</emphasis> information:<screen>SRC_URI_append = " file://fix-makefile.patch;patch=1"
+SRC_URI_append += "file://fix-install.patch;patch=1"</screen></para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>Prepending: _prepend</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>You can prepend values to existing variables using the
+ _prepend method. Note that this operator does not add any additional
+ space, and it is applied after all the <emphasis>+=</emphasis>, and
+ <emphasis>=+</emphasis> operators have been applied.</para>
+
+ <para>The following example show the space being explicitly added to
+ the end to ensure the prepended value is not merged with the
+ existing value:<screen>CFLAGS_prepend = "-I${S}/myincludes "</screen>The
+ <emphasis>_prepend</emphasis> method can also be used with
+ overrides, which result in the actions only being performed for the
+ specified target or machine: [TODO: Link to section on
+ overrides]<screen>CFLAGS_prepend_sh4 = " file://fix-makefile.patch;patch=1"</screen>Note
+ that the appended information is a variable itself, and therefore
+ it's possible to used <emphasis>+=</emphasis> or
+ <emphasis>=+</emphasis> to assign variables to the
+ <emphasis>_prepend</emphasis> information:<screen>CFLAGS_prepend = "-I${S}/myincludes "
+CFLAGS_prepend += "-I${S}/myincludes2 "</screen>Note also the lack of a space
+ when using += to append to a prepend value - remember that the +=
+ operator is adding space itself.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>Spaces vs tabs</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>Spaces should be used for indentation, not hard tabs. Both
+ currently work, however it is a policy decision of OE that spaces
+ always be used.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>Style: oe-stylize.py</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>To help with using the correct style in your recipes there is
+ a python script in the contrib directory called
+ <emphasis>oe-stylize.py</emphasis> which can be used to reformat
+ your recipes to the correct style. The output will contain a list of
+ warning (to let you know what you did wrong) which should be edited
+ out before using the new file.<screen>contrib/oe-stylize.py myrecipe.bb &gt; fixed-recipe.bb
+vi fixed-recipe.bb
+mv fixed.recipe.bb myrecipe.bb</screen></para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>Using python for complex operations: ${@...}</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>For more advanced processing it is possible to use python code
+ during variable assignments, for doing search and replace on a
+ variable for example.</para>
+
+ <para>Python code is indicated by a proceeding @ sign in the
+ variable assignment.<screen>CXXFLAGS := "${@'${CXXFLAGS}'.replace('-frename-registers', '')}"</screen>More
+ information about using python is available in the <xref
+ linkend="recipes_advanced_python" /> section.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>Shell syntax</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>When describing a list of actions to take shell syntax is used
+ (as if you were writing a shell script). You should ensure that you
+ script would work with a generic sh and not require any bash (or
+ other shell) specific functionality. The same applies to various
+ system utilities (sed, grep, awk etc) that you may wish to use. If
+ in doubt you should check with multiple implementations - including
+ those from busybox.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+ </variablelist>
+
+ <para>For a detailed description of the syntax for the bitbake recipe
+ files you should refer to the bitbake use manual.</para>
+ </section>
+
+ <section id="recipes_versioning" xreflabel="versioning">
+ <title>Recipe naming: Names, versions and releases</title>
+
+ <para>Recipes in OpenEmbedded use a standard naming convention that
+ includes the package name and version number in the filename. In addition
+ to the name and version there is also a release number, which is indicates
+ changes to the way the package is built and/or packaged. The release
+ number is contained within the recipe itself.</para>
+
+ <para>The expected format of recipe name is:<screen>&lt;package-name&gt;_&lt;version&gt;.bb</screen></para>
+
+ <para>where <emphasis>&lt;package-name&gt;</emphasis> is the name of the
+ package (application, library, module, or whatever it is that is being
+ packaged) and <emphasis>version</emphasis> is the version number.</para>
+
+ <para>So a typical recipe name would be:<screen>strace_4.5.14.bb</screen>which
+ would be for version <emphasis>4.5.14</emphasis> of the
+ <emphasis>strace</emphasis> application.</para>
+
+ <para>The release version is defined via the package release variable, PR,
+ contained in the recipe. The expected format is:<screen>r&lt;n&gt;</screen>where
+ <emphasis>&lt;n&gt;</emphasis> is an integer number starting from 0
+ initially and then incremented each time the recipe, or something that
+ effects the recipe, is modified. So a typical definition of the release
+ would be:<screen>PR = "r1"</screen>to specify release number
+ <emphasis>1</emphasis> (the second release, the first would have been
+ <emphasis>0</emphasis>). If there is no definition of PR in the recipe
+ then the default value of "r0" is used.</para>
+
+ <para><note>
+ <para>It is good practice to always define PR in your recipes, even
+ for the <emphasis>"r0"</emphasis> release, so that when editing the
+ recipe it is clear that the PR number needs to be updated.</para>
+
+ <para>You should always increment PR when modifying a recipe.
+ Sometimes this can be avoided if the change will have no effect on the
+ actual packages generated by the recipe, such as updating the SRC_URI
+ to point to a new host. If in any doubt then you should increase the
+ PR regardless of what has been changed.</para>
+
+ <para>The PR value should never be decremented. If you accidentally
+ submit a large PR value for example then it should be left at the
+ value and just increased for new releases, not reset back to a lower
+ version.</para>
+ </note></para>
+
+ <para>When a recipe is being processed some variables are automatically
+ set based on the recipe file name and can be used for other purposes from
+ within the recipe itself. These include:</para>
+
+ <variablelist>
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>PN</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>The package name. Determined from the recipe filename -
+ everything up until the first underscore is considered to be the
+ package name. For the <command>strace_4.5.14.bb</command> recipe the
+ PN variable would be set to <emphasis>"strace"</emphasis>.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>PV</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>The package version. Determined from the recipe filename -
+ everything between the first underscore and the final .bb is
+ considered to be the package version. For the
+ <command>strace_4.5.14.bb</command> recipe the PV variable would be
+ set to <emphasis>"4.5.14"</emphasis>.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>PR</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>The package release. This is explicitly set in the recipe, or
+ if not set it defaults to "<emphasis>r0"</emphasis> if not
+ set.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>P</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>The package name and versions separated by a hyphen.<screen>P = "${PN}-${PV}"</screen></para>
+
+ <para>For the <command>strace_4.5.14.bb</command> recipe the P
+ variable would be set to
+ <emphasis>"strace-4.5.14"</emphasis>.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>PF</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>The package name, version and release separated by
+ hyphens.<screen>PF = "${PN}-${PV}-${PR}"</screen></para>
+
+ <para>For the s<command>trace_4.5.14.bb recipe</command>, with PR
+ set to <emphasis>"r1"</emphasis> in the recipe, the PF variable
+ would be set to <emphasis>"strace-4.5.14-r1"</emphasis>.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+ </variablelist>
+
+ <para>While some of these variables are not commonly used in recipes (they
+ are used internally though) both PN and PV are used a lot.</para>
+
+ <para>In the following example we are instructing the packaging system to
+ include an additional directory in the package. We use PN to refer to the
+ name of the package rather than spelling out the package name:<screen>FILES_${PN} += "${sysconfdir}/myconf"</screen></para>
+
+ <para>In the next example we are specifying the URL for the package
+ source, by using PV in place of the actual version number it is possible
+ to duplicate, or rename, the recipe for a new version without having to
+ edit the URL:<screen>SRC_URI = "ftp://ftp.vim.org/pub/vim/unix/vim-${PV}.tar.bz2"</screen></para>
+ </section>
+
+ <section id="recipes_variables" xreflabel="variables">
+ <title>Variables</title>
+
+ <para>One of the most confusing part of bitbake recipes for new users is
+ the large amount of variables that appear to be available to change and/or
+ control the behaviour of some aspect of the recipe. Some variables, such
+ as those derived from the file name are reasonably obvious, others are not
+ at all obvious.</para>
+
+ <para>There are several places where these variables are derived from
+ and/or used:</para>
+
+ <orderedlist>
+ <listitem>
+ <para>A large number of variables are defined in the bitbake
+ configuration file conf/bitbake.conf - it's often a good idea to look
+ through that file when trying to determine what a particular variable
+ means.</para>
+ </listitem>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>Machine and distribution configuration files in conf/machine and
+ conf/distro will sometimes define some variables specific to the
+ machine and/or distribution. You should look at the appropriate files
+ for your targets to see if anything is being defined that effects the
+ recipes you are building.</para>
+ </listitem>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>Bitbake itself will define some variables. The FILE variables
+ that defines the name of the bitbake recipe being processed is set by
+ bitbake itself for example. Refer to the bitbake manual for more
+ information on the variables that bitbake sets.</para>
+ </listitem>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>The classes, that are used via the inherit keyword, define
+ and/or use the majority of the remaining variables. A class is a like
+ a library that contain parts of a bitbake recipe that are used by
+ multiple recipes. To make them usable in more situations they often
+ include a large number of variables to control how the class
+ operates.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </orderedlist>
+
+ <para>Another important aspect is that there are three different types of
+ things that binaries and libraries are used for and they often have
+ different variables for each. These include:</para>
+
+ <variablelist>
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>target</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>Refers to things built for the target are expected to be run
+ on the target device itself.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>native</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>Refers to things built to run natively on the build host
+ itself.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>cross</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>Refers to things built to run natively on the build host
+ itself, but produce output which is suitable for the target device.
+ Cross versions of packages usually only exist for things like
+ compilers and assemblers - i.e. things which are used to produce
+ binary applications themselves.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+ </variablelist>
+ </section>
+
+ <section id="recipes_header" xreflabel="header">
+ <title>Header</title>
+
+ <para>Practically all recipes start was the header section which describes
+ various aspects of the package that is being built. This information is
+ typically used directly by the package format (such as ipkg or deb) as
+ it's meta data used to describe the package.</para>
+
+ <para>Variables used in the header include:</para>
+
+ <variablelist>
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>DESCRIPTION</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>Describes what the software does. Hopefully this gives enough
+ information to a use to know if it's the right application for
+ them.</para>
+
+ <para>The default description is: <emphasis>"Version ${PV}-${PR} of
+ package ${PN}"</emphasis>.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>HOMEPAGE</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>The URL of the home page of the application where new releases
+ and more information can be found.</para>
+
+ <para>The default homepage is <emphasis>"unknown"</emphasis>.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>SECTION</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>The section is used to categorise the application into a
+ specific group. Often used by GUI based installers to help users
+ when searching for software.</para>
+
+ <para>See <xref linkend="section_variable" /> for a list of the
+ available sections.</para>
+
+ <para>The default section is <emphasis>"base"</emphasis>.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>PRIORITY</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>The default priority is
+ <emphasis>"optional"</emphasis>.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>LICENSE</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>The license for the application. If it is not one of the
+ standard licenses then the license itself must be included
+ (where?).</para>
+
+ <para>As well as being used in the package meta-data the license is
+ also used by the src_distribute class.</para>
+
+ <para>The default license is <emphasis>"unknown"</emphasis>.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+ </variablelist>
+ </section>
+
+ <section id="recipes_sources" xreflabel="sources">
+ <title>Sources: Downloading, patching and additional files</title>
+
+ <para>A recipes purpose is to describe how to take a software package and
+ build it for your target device. The location of the source file (or
+ files) is specified via the <xref linkend="src_uri_variable" /> in the
+ recipe. This can describe several types of URI's, the most common
+ are:</para>
+
+ <variablelist>
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>http and https</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>Specifies files to be downloaded. A copy is stored locally so
+ that future builds will not download the source again.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>cvs, svn and git</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>Specifies that the files are to be retrieved using the
+ specified version control system.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>files</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>Plain files which are included locally. These can be used for
+ adding documentation, init scripts or any other files that need to
+ be added to build the package under openembedded.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>patches</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>Patches are plain files which are treated as patched and
+ automatically applied.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+ </variablelist>
+
+ <para>If a http, https or file URI refers to a compressed file, an archive
+ file or a compressed archive file, such as .tar.gz or .zip, then the files
+ will be uncompressed and extracted from the archive automatically.</para>
+
+ <para>Archive files will be extracted from with the working directory,
+ <emphasis role="bold">${WORKDIR}</emphasis> and plain files will be copied
+ into the same directory. Patches will be applied from within the unpacked
+ source directory, <emphasis role="bold">${S}</emphasis>. (Details on these
+ directories is provided in the next section.)</para>
+
+ <para>The following example from the havp recipe shows a typical <emphasis
+ role="bold">SRC_URI</emphasis> definition:<screen>SRC_URI = "http://www.server-side.de/download/havp-${PV}.tar.gz \
+ file://sysconfdir-is-etc.patch;patch=1 \
+ file://havp.init \
+ file://doc.configure.txt \
+ file://volatiles.05_havp"</screen></para>
+
+ <para>This describes several files</para>
+
+ <variablelist>
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>http://www.server-side.de/download/havp-${PV}.tar.gz</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>This is the URI of the havp source code. Note the use of the
+ <emphasis role="bold">${PV}</emphasis> variable to specify the
+ version. This is done to enable the recipe to be renamed for a new
+ version without the need the edit the recipe itself. Because this is
+ a .tar.gz compressed archive the file will be decompressed and
+ extracted in the working dir <emphasis
+ role="bold">${WORKDIR}</emphasis>.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>file://sysconfdir-is-etc.patch;patch=1</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>This is a local file that is used to patch the extracted
+ source code. The patch=1 is what specifies that this is a patch. The
+ patch will be applied from the unpacked source directory, <emphasis
+ role="bold">${S}</emphasis>. In this case <emphasis
+ role="bold">${S}</emphasis> will be <emphasis
+ role="bold">${WORKDIR}/havp-0.82</emphasis>, and luckily the
+ <emphasis role="bold">havp-0.82.tar.gz</emphasis> file extracts
+ itself into that directory (so no need to explicitly change
+ <emphasis role="bold">${S}</emphasis>).</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>file://havp.init file://doc.configure.txt
+ file://volatiles.05_havp"</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>These are plain files which are just copied into the working
+ directory <emphasis role="bold">${WORKDIR}</emphasis>. These are
+ then used during the install task in the recipe to provide init
+ scripts, documentation and volatiles configuration information for
+ the package.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+ </variablelist>
+
+ <para>Full details on the <emphasis role="bold">SRC_URI</emphasis>
+ variable and all the support URI's is available in the <xref
+ linkend="src_uri_variable" /> section of the reference chapter.</para>
+ </section>
+
+ <section id="recipes_directories" xreflabel="directories">
+ <title>Directories: What goes where</title>
+
+ <para>A large part of the work or a recipe is involved with specifying
+ where files and found and where they have to go. It's important for
+ example that programs do not try and use files from <emphasis
+ role="bold">/usr/include</emphasis> or <emphasis
+ role="bold">/usr/lib</emphasis> since they are for the host system, not
+ the target. Similarly you don't want programs installed into <emphasis
+ role="bold">/usr/bin</emphasis> since that may overwrite your host system
+ programs with versions that don't work on the host!</para>
+
+ <para>The following are some of the directories commonly referred to in
+ recipes and will be described in more detail in the rest of this
+ section:</para>
+
+ <variablelist>
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>Working directory: WORKDIR</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>This working directory for a recipe is where archive files
+ will be extracted, plain files will be placed, subdirectories for
+ logs, installed files etc will be created.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>Unpacked source code directory: S</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>This is where patches are applied and where the program is
+ expected to be compiled in.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>Destination directory: D</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>The destination directory. This is where your package should
+ be installed into. The packaging system will then take the files
+ from directories under here and package them up for installation on
+ the target.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>Installation directories: bindir, docdir, ...</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>There are a set of variables available to describe all of the
+ paths on the target that you may want to use. Recipes should use
+ these variables rather than hard coding any specific paths.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>Staging directories: STAGING_LIBDIR, STAGING_INCDIR, ...</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>Staging directories are a special area for headers, libraries
+ and other files that are generated by one recipe that may be needed
+ by another recipe. A library package for example needs to make the
+ library and headers available to other recipes so that they can link
+ against them.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>File path directories: FILE, FILE_DIRNAME, FILESDIR,
+ FILESPATH</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>These directories are used to control where files are found.
+ Understanding these can help you separate patches for different
+ versions or releases of your recipes and/or use the same patch over
+ multiple versions etc.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+ </variablelist>
+
+ <section>
+ <title>WORKDIR: The working directory</title>
+
+ <para>The working directory is where the source code is extracted, to
+ which plain files (not patches) are copied and where the logs and
+ installation files are created. A typical reason for needing to
+ reference the work directory is for the handling of non patch
+ files.</para>
+
+ <para>If we take a look at the recipe for quagga we can see an example
+ non patch files for configuration and init scripts:<screen>SRC_URI = "http://www.quagga.net/download/quagga-${PV}.tar.gz \
+ file://fix-for-lib-inpath.patch;patch=1 \
+ file://quagga.init \
+ file://quagga.default \
+ file://watchquagga.init \
+ file://watchquagga.default"</screen>The recipe has two init files
+ and two configuration files, which are not patches, but are actually
+ files that it wants to include in the generated packages. Bitbake will
+ copy these files into the work directory. So to access them during the
+ install task we refer to them via the <emphasis
+ role="bold">WORKDIR</emphasis> variable:<screen>do_install () {
+ # Install init script and default settings
+ install -m 0755 -d ${D}${sysconfdir}/default ${D}${sysconfdir}/init.d ${D}${sysconfdir}/quagga
+ install -m 0644 ${WORKDIR}/quagga.default ${D}${sysconfdir}/default/quagga
+ install -m 0644 ${WORKDIR}/watchquagga.default ${D}${sysconfdir}/default/watchquagga
+ install -m 0755 ${WORKDIR}/quagga.init ${D}${sysconfdir}/init.d/quagga
+ install -m 0755 ${WORKDIR}/watchquagga.init ${D}${sysconfdir}/init.d/watchquagga
+ ...</screen></para>
+ </section>
+
+ <section>
+ <title>S: The unpacked source code directory</title>
+
+ <para>Bitbake expects to find the extracted source for a package in a
+ directory called <emphasis
+ role="bold">&lt;packagename&gt;-&lt;version&gt;</emphasis> in the
+ <emphasis role="bold">WORKDIR</emphasis> directory. This is the
+ directory in which it will change into before patching, compiling and
+ installating the package.</para>
+
+ <para>For example, we have a package called <emphasis
+ role="bold">widgets_1.2.bb</emphasis> which we are extracting from the
+ <emphasis role="bold">widgets-1.2.tar.gz</emphasis> file. Bitbake
+ expects the source to end up in a directory called <emphasis
+ role="bold">widgets-1.2</emphasis> within the work directory. If the
+ source does not end up in this directory then bitbake needs to be told
+ this by explicitly setting <emphasis role="bold">S</emphasis>.</para>
+
+ <para>If <emphasis role="bold">widgets-1.2.tar.gz</emphasis> actually
+ extracts into a directory called <emphasis
+ role="bold">widgets</emphasis>, without the version number, instead of
+ <emphasis role="bold">widgets-1.2</emphasis> then the <emphasis
+ role="bold">S</emphasis> variable will be wrong and patching and/or
+ compiling will fail. Therefore we need to override the default value of
+ <emphasis role="bold">S</emphasis> to specify the directory the source
+ was actually extracted into:<screen>SRC_URI = "http://www.example.com/software/widgets-${PN}.tar.gz"
+S = "${WORKDIR}/widgets"</screen></para>
+ </section>
+
+ <section>
+ <title>D: The destination directory</title>
+
+ <para>The destination directory is where the completed application and
+ all of it's files are installed into in preparation for packaging.
+ Typically an installation would places files in directories such as
+ <emphasis role="bold">/etc</emphasis> and <emphasis
+ role="bold">/usr/bin</emphasis> by default. Since those directories are
+ used by the host system we do not want the packages to install into
+ those locations. Instead they need to install into the directories below
+ the destination directory.</para>
+
+ <para>So instead of installing into <emphasis
+ role="bold">/usr/bin</emphasis> the package needs to install into
+ <emphasis role="bold">${D}/usr/bin</emphasis>.</para>
+
+ <para>The following example from arpwatch shows the make install command
+ being passed a <emphasis role="bold">${D}</emphasis> as the <emphasis
+ role="bold">DESTDIR</emphasis> variable to control where the makefile
+ installs everything:<screen>do_install() {
+ ...
+ oe_runmake install DESTDIR=${D}</screen></para>
+
+ <para>The following example from quagga shows the use of the destination
+ directory to install the configuration files and init scripts for the
+ package:<screen>do_install () {
+ # Install init script and default settings
+ install -m 0755 -d ${D}${sysconfdir}/default ${D}${sysconfdir}/init.d ${D}${sysconfdir}/quagga
+ install -m 0644 ${WORKDIR}/quagga.default ${D}${sysconfdir}/default/quagga
+ install -m 0755 ${WORKDIR}/quagga.init ${D}${sysconfdir}/init.d/quagga</screen><note>
+ <para>You should not use directories such as <emphasis
+ role="bold">/etc</emphasis> and <emphasis
+ role="bold">/usr/bin</emphasis> directly in your recipes. You should
+ use the variables that define these locations. The full list of
+ these variables can be found in the <xref
+ linkend="directories_installation" /> section of the reference
+ chapter.</para>
+ </note></para>
+ </section>
+
+ <section>
+ <title>Staging directories</title>
+
+ <para>Staging is used to make libraries, headers and binaries available
+ for the build of one recipe for use by another recipe. Building a
+ library for example requires that packages be created containing the
+ libraries and headers for development on the target as well as making
+ them available on the host for building other packages that need the
+ libraries and headers.</para>
+
+ <para>Making the libraries, headers and binaries available for use by
+ other recipes on the host is called staging and is performed by the
+ <emphasis>stage</emphasis> task in the recipe. Any recipes that contain
+ items that are required to build other packages should have a
+ <emphasis>stage</emphasis> task to make sure the items are all correctly
+ placed into the staging area. The following example from clamav show the
+ clamav library and header being placed into the staging area:<screen>do_stage () {
+ oe_libinstall -a -so libclamav ${STAGING_LIBDIR}
+ install -m 0644 libclamav/clamav.h ${STAGING_INCDIR}
+}</screen></para>
+
+ <para>The following from the p3scan recipe show the path to the clamav
+ library and header being passed to the configure script. Without this
+ the configure script would either fail to find the library, or worse
+ still search the host systems directories for the library. Passing in
+ the location results in it searching the correct location and finding
+ the clamav library and headers:<screen>EXTRA_OECONF = "--with-clamav=${STAGING_LIBDIR}/.. \
+ --with-openssl=${STAGING_LIBDIR}/.. \
+ --disable-ripmime"</screen>While the staging directories are
+ automatically added by OpenEmbedded to the compiler and linking commands
+ it is sometimes necessary, as in the p3scan example above, to explicitly
+ specify the location of the staging directories. Typically this is
+ needed for autoconf scripts that search in multiple places for the
+ libraries and headers.</para>
+
+ <note>
+ <para>Many of the helper classes, such as pkgconfig and autotools add
+ appropriate commands to the stage task for you. Check with the
+ individual class descriptions in the reference section to determine
+ what each class is staging automatically for you.</para>
+ </note>
+
+ <para>A full list of staging directories can be found in the <xref
+ linkend="directories_staging" /> section in the reference
+ chapter.</para>
+ </section>
+
+ <section id="recipes_filespath_dir" xreflabel="FILESPATH/FILESDIR">
+ <title>FILESPATH/FILESDIR: Finding local files</title>
+
+ <para>The file related variables are used by bitbake to determine where
+ to look for patches and local files.</para>
+
+ <para>Typically you will not need to modify these, but it is useful to
+ be aware of the default values. In particular when searching for patches
+ and/or files (file:// URI's), the default search path is:</para>
+
+ <variablelist>
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>${FILE_DIRNAME}/${PF}</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>This is the package name, version and release, such as
+ "<emphasis role="bold">strace-4.5.14-r1</emphasis>". This is very
+ rarely used since the patches would only be found for the one
+ exact release of the recipe.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>${FILE_DIRNAME}/${P}</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>This is the package name and version, such as "<emphasis
+ role="bold">strace-4.5.14</emphasis>". This is by far the most
+ common place to place version specified patches.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>${FILE_DIRNAME}/${PN}</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>This is the package name only, such as "<emphasis
+ role="bold">strace</emphasis>". This is not commonly used.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>${FILE_DIRNAME}/files</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>This is just the directory called "<emphasis
+ role="bold">files</emphasis>". This is commonly used for patches
+ and files that apply to all version of the package.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>${FILE_DIRNAME}/</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>This is just the base directory of the recipe. This is very
+ rarely used since it would just clutter the main directory.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+ </variablelist>
+
+ <para>Each of the paths is relative to <emphasis
+ role="bold">${FILE_DIRNAME}</emphasis> which is the directory in which
+ the recipe that is being processed is located.</para>
+
+ <para>The full set of variables that control the file locations and
+ patch are:</para>
+
+ <variablelist>
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>FILE</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>The path to the .bb file which is currently being
+ processed.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>FILE_DIRNAME</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>The path to the directory which contains the FILE which is
+ currently being processed.<screen>FILE_DIRNAME = "${@os.path.dirname(bb.data.getVar('FILE', d))}"</screen></para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>FILESPATH</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>The default set of directories which are available to use
+ for the file:// URI's. Each directory is searched, in the
+ specified order, in an attempt to find the file specified by each
+ file:// URI: <screen>FILESPATH = "${FILE_DIRNAME}/${PF}:${FILE_DIRNAME}/${P}:\
+${FILE_DIRNAME}/${PN}:${FILE_DIRNAME}/files:${FILE_DIRNAME}"</screen></para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>FILESDIR</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>The default directory to search for file:// URI's. Only used
+ if the file is not found in FILESPATH. This can be used to easily
+ add one additional directory to the search path without having to
+ modify the default FILESPATH setting. By default this is just the
+ first directory from FILESPATH. <screen>FILESDIR = "${@bb.which(bb.data.getVar('FILESPATH', d, 1), '.')}" </screen></para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+ </variablelist>
+
+ <para>Sometimes recipes will modify the <emphasis
+ role="bold">FILESPATH</emphasis> or <emphasis
+ role="bold">FILESDIR</emphasis> variables to change the default search
+ path for patches and files. The most common situation in which this is
+ done is when one recipe includes another one in which the default values
+ will be based on the name of the package doing the including, not the
+ included package. Typically the included package will expect the files
+ to be located in a directories based on it's own name.</para>
+
+ <para>As an example the m4-native recipe includes the m4 recipe. This is
+ fine, except that the m4 recipes expects its files and patches to be
+ located in a directory called <emphasis role="bold">m4</emphasis>
+ directory while the native file name results in them being searched for
+ in <emphasis role="bold">m4-native</emphasis>. So the m4-native recipe
+ sets the <emphasis role="bold">FILESDIR</emphasis> variable to the value
+ that of m4 to add the actual m4 directory (where m4 itself has its files
+ stored) to the list of directories search for:<screen> include m4_${PV}.bb
+ inherit native
+ FILESDIR = "${@os.path.dirname(bb.data.getVar('FILE',d,1))}/m4"</screen></para>
+ </section>
+ </section>
+
+ <section id="recipes_examples" xreflabel="examples">
+ <title>Basic examples</title>
+
+ <para>By now you should know enough about the bitbake recipes to be able
+ to create a basic recipe. We'll cover a simple single file recipe and then
+ a more advanced example that uses the autotools helper class (to be
+ described later) to build an autoconf based package.</para>
+
+ <section id="recipes_helloworld_example" xreflabel="hello world example">
+ <title>Hello world</title>
+
+ <para>Now it's time for our first recipe. This is going to be one of the
+ simplest possible recipes: all code is included and there's only one
+ file to compile and one readme file. While this isn't all that common
+ it's a useful example because it doesn't depend on any of the helper
+ classes which can sometime hide a lot of what is going on.</para>
+
+ <para>First we'll create the myhelloworld.c file and a readme file.
+ We'll place this in the files subdirectory, which is one of the places
+ that is searched for file:// URI's:<screen>mkdir packages/myhelloworld
+mkdir packages/myhelloworld/files
+cat &gt; packages/myhelloworld/files/myhelloworld.c
+#include &lt;stdio.h&gt;
+
+int main(int argc, char** argv)
+{
+ printf("Hello world!\n");
+ return 0;
+}
+^D
+cat &gt; packages/myhelloworld/files/README.txt
+Readme file for myhelloworld.
+^D</screen></para>
+
+ <para>Now we have a directory for our recipe, packages/myhelloworld, and
+ we've created a files subdirectory in there to store our local files.
+ We've created two local files, the C source code for our helloworld
+ program and a readme file. Now we need to create the bitbake
+ recipe.</para>
+
+ <para>First we need the header section, which will contain a description
+ of the package and the release number. We'll leave the other header
+ variables out for now:<screen>DESCRIPTION = "My hello world program"
+PR = "r0"</screen></para>
+
+ <para>Next we need to tell it which files we want to be included in the
+ recipe, which we do via file:// URI's and the SRC_URI variable:<screen>SRC_URI = "file://myhelloworld.c \
+ file://README.txt"</screen></para>
+
+ <para>Note the use of the \ to continue a file and the file of file://
+ local URI's, rather than other types such as http://.</para>
+
+ <para>Now we need provide a compile task which tells bitbake how to
+ compile this program. We do this by defining a do_compile function in
+ the recipe and providing the appropriate commands:</para>
+
+ <para><screen>do_compile() {
+ ${CC} ${CFLAGS} ${LDFLAGS} ${WORKDIR}/myhelloworld.c -o myhelloworld
+}</screen></para>
+
+ <para>Note the:</para>
+
+ <itemizedlist>
+ <listitem>
+ <para>use of the pre-defined compiler variables, <emphasis
+ role="bold">${CC}</emphasis>, <emphasis
+ role="bold">${CFLAGS}</emphasis> and <emphasis
+ role="bold">${LDFLAGS}</emphasis>. These are setup automatically to
+ contain the settings required to cross-compile the program for the
+ target.</para>
+ </listitem>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>use of <emphasis role="bold">${WORKDIR}</emphasis> to find the
+ source file. As mentioned previously all files are copied into the
+ working directory and can be referenced via the <emphasis
+ role="bold">${WORKDIR}</emphasis> variable.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </itemizedlist>
+
+ <para>And finally we want to install the program and readme file into
+ the destination directory so that it'll be packaged up correctly. This
+ is done via the install task, so we need to define a do_install function
+ in the recipe to describe how to install the package:<screen>do_install() {
+ install -m 0755 -d ${D}${bindir} ${D}${docdir}/myhelloworld
+ install -m 0644 ${S}/myhelloworld ${D}${bindir}
+ install -m 0644 ${WORKDIR}/README.txt ${D}${docdir}/myhelloworld
+}</screen></para>
+
+ <para>Note the:</para>
+
+ <itemizedlist>
+ <listitem>
+ <para>use the <emphasis role="bold">install</emphasis> command to
+ create directories and install the files, not cp.</para>
+ </listitem>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>way directories are created before we attempt to install any
+ files into them. The install command takes care of any
+ subdirectories that are missing, so we only need to create the full
+ path to the directory - no need to create the subdirectories.</para>
+ </listitem>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>way we install everything into the destination directory via
+ the use of the <emphasis role="bold">${D}
+ </emphasis>variable.</para>
+ </listitem>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>way we use variables to refer to the target directories, such
+ as <emphasis role="bold">${bindir}</emphasis> and <emphasis
+ role="bold">${docdir}</emphasis>.</para>
+ </listitem>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>use of <emphasis role="bold">${WORKDIR}</emphasis> to get
+ access to the <emphasis role="bold">README.txt</emphasis> file,
+ which was provided via file:// URI.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </itemizedlist>
+
+ <para>We'll consider this release 0 and version 0.1 of a program called
+ helloworld. So we'll name the recipe myhelloworld_0.1.bb:<screen>cat &gt; packages/myhelloworld/myhelloworld_0.1.bb
+DESCRIPTION = "Hello world program"
+PR = "r0"
+
+SRC_URI = "file://myhelloworld.c \
+ file://README.txt"
+
+do_compile() {
+ ${CC} ${CFLAGS} ${LDFLAGS} ${WORKDIR}/myhelloworld.c -o myhelloworld
+}
+
+do_install() {
+ install -m 0755 -d ${D}${bindir} ${D}${docdir}/myhelloworld
+ install -m 0644 ${S}/myhelloworld ${D}${bindir}
+ install -m 0644 ${WORKDIR}/README.txt ${D}${docdir}/myhelloworld
+}
+^D</screen>Now we are ready to build our package, hopefully it'll all work
+ since it's such a simple example:<screen>~/oe%&gt; bitbake -b packages/myhelloworld/myhelloworld_0.1.bb
+NOTE: package myhelloworld-0.1: started
+NOTE: package myhelloworld-0.1-r0: task do_fetch: started
+NOTE: package myhelloworld-0.1-r0: task do_fetch: completed
+NOTE: package myhelloworld-0.1-r0: task do_unpack: started
+NOTE: Unpacking /home/lenehan/devel/oe/local-packages/myhelloworld/files/helloworld.c to /home/lenehan/devel/oe/build/titan-glibc-25/tmp/work/myhelloworld-0.1-r0/
+NOTE: Unpacking /home/lenehan/devel/oe/local-packages/myhelloworld/files/README.txt to /home/lenehan/devel/oe/build/titan-glibc-25/tmp/work/myhelloworld-0.1-r0/
+NOTE: package myhelloworld-0.1-r0: task do_unpack: completed
+NOTE: package myhelloworld-0.1-r0: task do_patch: started
+NOTE: package myhelloworld-0.1-r0: task do_patch: completed
+NOTE: package myhelloworld-0.1-r0: task do_configure: started
+NOTE: package myhelloworld-0.1-r0: task do_configure: completed
+NOTE: package myhelloworld-0.1-r0: task do_compile: started
+NOTE: package myhelloworld-0.1-r0: task do_compile: completed
+NOTE: package myhelloworld-0.1-r0: task do_install: started
+NOTE: package myhelloworld-0.1-r0: task do_install: completed
+NOTE: package myhelloworld-0.1-r0: task do_package: started
+NOTE: package myhelloworld-0.1-r0: task do_package: completed
+NOTE: package myhelloworld-0.1-r0: task do_package_write: started
+NOTE: Not creating empty archive for myhelloworld-dbg-0.1-r0
+Packaged contents of myhelloworld into /home/lenehan/devel/oe/build/titan-glibc-25/tmp/deploy/ipk/sh4/myhelloworld_0.1-r0_sh4.ipk
+Packaged contents of myhelloworld-doc into /home/lenehan/devel/oe/build/titan-glibc-25/tmp/deploy/ipk/sh4/myhelloworld-doc_0.1-r0_sh4.ipk
+NOTE: Not creating empty archive for myhelloworld-dev-0.1-r0
+NOTE: Not creating empty archive for myhelloworld-locale-0.1-r0
+NOTE: package myhelloworld-0.1-r0: task do_package_write: completed
+NOTE: package myhelloworld-0.1-r0: task do_populate_staging: started
+NOTE: package myhelloworld-0.1-r0: task do_populate_staging: completed
+NOTE: package myhelloworld-0.1-r0: task do_build: started
+NOTE: package myhelloworld-0.1-r0: task do_build: completed
+NOTE: package myhelloworld-0.1: completed
+Build statistics:
+ Attempted builds: 1
+~/oe%&gt;</screen></para>
+
+ <para>The package was successfully built, the output consists of two
+ .ipkg files, which are ready to be installed on the target. One contains
+ the binary and the other contains the readme file:<screen>~/oe%&gt; ls -l tmp/deploy/ipk/*/myhelloworld*
+-rw-r--r-- 1 lenehan lenehan 3040 Jan 12 14:46 tmp/deploy/ipk/sh4/myhelloworld_0.1-r0_sh4.ipk
+-rw-r--r-- 1 lenehan lenehan 768 Jan 12 14:46 tmp/deploy/ipk/sh4/myhelloworld-doc_0.1-r0_sh4.ipk
+~/oe%&gt;</screen></para>
+
+ <para>It's worthwhile looking at the working directory to see where
+ various files ended up:<screen>~/oe%&gt; find tmp/work/myhelloworld-0.1-r0
+tmp/work/myhelloworld-0.1-r0
+tmp/work/myhelloworld-0.1-r0/myhelloworld-0.1
+tmp/work/myhelloworld-0.1-r0/myhelloworld-0.1/patches
+tmp/work/myhelloworld-0.1-r0/myhelloworld-0.1/myhelloworld
+tmp/work/myhelloworld-0.1-r0/temp
+tmp/work/myhelloworld-0.1-r0/temp/run.do_configure.21840
+tmp/work/myhelloworld-0.1-r0/temp/log.do_stage.21840
+tmp/work/myhelloworld-0.1-r0/temp/log.do_install.21840
+tmp/work/myhelloworld-0.1-r0/temp/log.do_compile.21840
+tmp/work/myhelloworld-0.1-r0/temp/run.do_stage.21840
+tmp/work/myhelloworld-0.1-r0/temp/log.do_configure.21840
+tmp/work/myhelloworld-0.1-r0/temp/run.do_install.21840
+tmp/work/myhelloworld-0.1-r0/temp/run.do_compile.21840
+tmp/work/myhelloworld-0.1-r0/install
+tmp/work/myhelloworld-0.1-r0/install/myhelloworld-locale
+tmp/work/myhelloworld-0.1-r0/install/myhelloworld-dbg
+tmp/work/myhelloworld-0.1-r0/install/myhelloworld-dev
+tmp/work/myhelloworld-0.1-r0/install/myhelloworld-doc
+tmp/work/myhelloworld-0.1-r0/install/myhelloworld-doc/usr
+tmp/work/myhelloworld-0.1-r0/install/myhelloworld-doc/usr/share
+tmp/work/myhelloworld-0.1-r0/install/myhelloworld-doc/usr/share/doc
+tmp/work/myhelloworld-0.1-r0/install/myhelloworld-doc/usr/share/doc/myhelloworld
+tmp/work/myhelloworld-0.1-r0/install/myhelloworld-doc/usr/share/doc/myhelloworld/README.txt
+tmp/work/myhelloworld-0.1-r0/install/myhelloworld
+tmp/work/myhelloworld-0.1-r0/install/myhelloworld/usr
+tmp/work/myhelloworld-0.1-r0/install/myhelloworld/usr/bin
+tmp/work/myhelloworld-0.1-r0/install/myhelloworld/usr/bin/myhelloworld
+tmp/work/myhelloworld-0.1-r0/image
+tmp/work/myhelloworld-0.1-r0/image/usr
+tmp/work/myhelloworld-0.1-r0/image/usr/bin
+tmp/work/myhelloworld-0.1-r0/image/usr/share
+tmp/work/myhelloworld-0.1-r0/image/usr/share/doc
+tmp/work/myhelloworld-0.1-r0/image/usr/share/doc/myhelloworld
+tmp/work/myhelloworld-0.1-r0/myhelloworld.c
+tmp/work/myhelloworld-0.1-r0/README.txt
+~/oe%&gt;</screen>Things to note here are:</para>
+
+ <itemizedlist>
+ <listitem>
+ <para>The two source files are in <emphasis
+ role="bold">tmp/work/myhelloworld-0.1-r0</emphasis>, which is the
+ working directory as specified via the <emphasis
+ role="bold">${WORKDIR}</emphasis> variable;</para>
+ </listitem>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>There's logs of the various tasks in <emphasis
+ role="bold">tmp/work/myhelloworld-0.1-r0/temp</emphasis> which you
+ can look at for more details on what was done in each task;</para>
+ </listitem>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>There's an image directory at <emphasis
+ role="bold">tmp/work/myhelloworld-0.1-r0/image</emphasis> which
+ contains just the directories that were to be packaged up. This is
+ actually the destination directory, as specified via the <emphasis
+ role="bold">${D}</emphasis> variable. The two files that we
+ installed were originally in here, but during packaging they were
+ moved into the install area into a subdirectory specific to the
+ package that was being created (remember we have a main package and
+ a -doc package being created.</para>
+ </listitem>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>The program was actually compiled in the <emphasis
+ role="bold">tmp/work/myhelloworld-0.1-r0/myhelloworld-0.1</emphasis>
+ directory, this is the source directory as specified via the
+ <emphasis role="bold">${S}</emphasis> variable.</para>
+ </listitem>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>There's an install directory at <emphasis
+ role="bold">tmp/work/myhelloworld-0.1-r0/install</emphasis> which
+ contains the packages that were being generated and the files that
+ go in the package. So we can see that the myhelloworld-doc package
+ contains the single file <emphasis
+ role="bold">/usr/share/doc/myhelloworld/README.txt</emphasis>, the
+ myhelloworld package contains the single file <emphasis
+ role="bold">/usr/bin/myhelloworld</emphasis> and the -dev, -dbg and
+ -local packages are all empty.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </itemizedlist>
+
+ <para>At this stage it's good to verify that we really did produce a
+ binary for the target and not for our host system. We can check that
+ with the file command:<screen>~/oe%&gt; file tmp/work/myhelloworld-0.1-r0/install/myhelloworld/usr/bin/myhelloworld
+tmp/work/myhelloworld-0.1-r0/install/myhelloworld/usr/bin/myhelloworld: ELF 32-bit LSB executable, Hitachi SH, version 1 (SYSV), for GNU/Linux 2.4.0, dynamically linked (uses shared libs), for GNU/Linux 2.4.0, not stripped
+~/oe%&gt; file /bin/ls
+/bin/ls: ELF 64-bit LSB executable, AMD x86-64, version 1 (SYSV), for GNU/Linux 2.4.0, dynamically linked (uses shared libs), for GNU/Linux 2.4.0, stripped
+~/oe%&gt;</screen>This shows us that the helloworld program is for an SH
+ processor (obviously this will change depending on what your target
+ system is), while checking the <emphasis role="bold">/bin/ls</emphasis>
+ program on host shows us that the host system is an AMD X86-64 system.
+ That's exactly what we wanted.</para>
+ </section>
+
+ <section id="recipes_autoconf_example" xreflabel="autoconf example">
+ <title>An autotools package</title>
+
+ <para>Now for an example of a package that uses autotools. These are
+ programs that you need to run a configure script for, passing various
+ parameters, and then make. To make these work when cross-compiling you
+ need to provides a lot of variables to the configure script. But all the
+ hard work as already been done for you. There's an <xref
+ linkend="autotools_class" /> which takes care of most of the complexity
+ of building an autotools based packages.</para>
+
+ <para>Let's take a look at the tuxnes recipe which is an example of a
+ very simple autotools based recipe:<screen>%~oe&gt; cat packages/tuxnes/tuxnes_0.75.bb
+DESCRIPTION = "Tuxnes Nintendo (8bit) Emulator"
+HOMEPAGE = "http://prdownloads.sourceforge.net/tuxnes/tuxnes-0.75.tar.gz"
+LICENSE = "GPLv2"
+SECTION = "x/games"
+PRIORITY = "optional"
+PR = "r1"
+
+SRC_URI = "http://heanet.dl.sourceforge.net/sourceforge/tuxnes/tuxnes-0.75.tar.gz"
+
+inherit autotools</screen></para>
+
+ <para>This is a really simple recipe. There's the standard header that
+ describes the package. Then the SRC_URI, which in this case is a http
+ URL that causes the source code to be downloaded from the specified URI.
+ And finally there's an "<emphasis role="bold">inherit
+ autotools</emphasis>" command which loads the autotools class. The
+ autotools class will take care of generating the require configure,
+ compile and install tasks. So in this case there's nothing else to do -
+ that's all there is to it.</para>
+
+ <para>It would be nice if it was always this simple. Unfortunately
+ there's usually a lot more involved for various reasons including the
+ need to:</para>
+
+ <itemizedlist>
+ <listitem>
+ <para>Pass parameters to configure to enable and disable
+ features;</para>
+ </listitem>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>Pass parameters to configure to specify where to find
+ libraries and headers;</para>
+ </listitem>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>Make modifications to prevent searching for headers and
+ libraries in the normal locations (since they below to the host
+ system, not the target);</para>
+ </listitem>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>Make modifications to prevent the configure script from tying
+ to compile and run programs - any programs it compiles will be for
+ the target and not the host and so cannot be run.</para>
+ </listitem>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>Manually implement staging scripts;</para>
+ </listitem>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>Deal with lots of other more complex issues;</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </itemizedlist>
+
+ <para>Some of these items are covered in more detail in the advanced
+ autoconf section.</para>
+ </section>
+ </section>
+
+ <section id="recipes_depenencies" xreflabel="dependencies">
+ <title>Dependencies: What's needed to build and/or run the
+ package?</title>
+
+ <para>Dependencies should be familiar to anyone who has used an .rpm and
+ .deb based desktop distribution. A dependency is something that a package
+ requires either to run the package (a run-time dependency) or to build the
+ package (a build-time or compile-time, dependency).</para>
+
+ <para>There are two variables provided to allow the specifications of
+ dependencies:</para>
+
+ <variablelist>
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>DEPENDS</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>Specifies build-time dependencies, via a list of bitbake
+ recipes to build prior to build the recipe. These are programs
+ (flex-native) or libraries (libpcre) that are required in order to
+ build the package.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>RDEPENDS</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>Specifies run-time dependencies, via a list of packages to
+ install prior to installing the current package. These are programs
+ or libraries that are required in order to run the program. Note
+ that libraries which are dynamically linked to an application will
+ be automatically detected and added to <emphasis
+ role="bold">RDEPENDS</emphasis> and therefore do not need to be
+ explicitly declared. If a library was dynamically loaded then it
+ would need to be explicitly listed.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+ </variablelist>
+
+ <para>If we take openssh for an example, it requires zlib and openssl in
+ order to both built and run. In the recipe we have:<screen>DEPENDS = "zlib openssl"</screen>This
+ tells bitbake that it will need to build and stage zlib and openssl prior
+ to trying to build openssh, since openssh requires both of them. Note that
+ there is no <emphasis role="bold">RDEPENDS</emphasis> even though openssh
+ requires both of them to run. The run time dependencies on libz1 (the name
+ of the package containing the zlib library) and libssl0 (the name of the
+ package containing the ssl library) are automatically determined and added
+ via the auto shared libs dependency code.</para>
+ </section>
+
+ <section id="recipes_methods" xreflabel="methods">
+ <title>Methods: Inbuilt methods to make your life easier</title>
+
+ <para>There are several helper functions defined by the base class, which
+ is included by default for all recipes. Many of these are used a lot in
+ both recipes and other classes.</para>
+
+ <para>The most commonly seen, and most useful functions, include:</para>
+
+ <variablelist>
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>oe_runmake</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>This function is used to run make. However unlike calling make
+ yourself this will pass the EXTRA_OEMAKE settings to make, will
+ display a note about the make command and will check for any errors
+ generated via the call to make.</para>
+
+ <para>You should never have any reason to call make directly and
+ should also use oe_runmake when you need to run make.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>oe_runconf (autotools only)</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>This function is used to run the configure script of a package
+ that is using the autotools class. This takes care of passing all of
+ the correct parameters for cross-compiling and for installing into
+ the appropriate target directory.</para>
+
+ <para>It also passes the value of the <emphasis
+ role="bold">EXTRA_OECONF</emphasis> variable to the configure
+ script. For many situations setting <emphasis
+ role="bold">EXTRA_OECONF</emphasis> is sufficient and you'll have no
+ need to define your own configure task in which you call oe_runconf
+ manually.</para>
+
+ <para>If you need to write your own <emphasis>configure</emphasis>
+ task for an autotools package you can use oe_runconf to manually
+ call the configure process when it is required. The following
+ example from net-snmp shows oe_runconf being called manually so that
+ the parameter for specifying the endianess can be computed and
+ passed in to the configure script:<screen>do_configure() {
+ # Additional flag based on target endiness (see siteinfo.bbclass)
+ ENDIANESS="${@base_conditional('SITEINFO_ENDIANESS', 'le', '--with-endianness=little', '--with-endianness=big', d)}"
+ oenote Determined endianess as: $ENDIANESS
+ oe_runconf $ENDIANESS
+}</screen></para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>oe_libinstall</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>This function is used to install <emphasis
+ role="bold">.so</emphasis>, <emphasis role="bold">.a</emphasis> and
+ associated libtool <emphasis role="bold">.la</emphasis> libraries.
+ It will determine the appropriate libraries to install and take care
+ of any modifications that may be require for <emphasis
+ role="bold">.la</emphasis> files.</para>
+
+ <para>This function supports the following options:</para>
+
+ <variablelist>
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>-C &lt;dir&gt;</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>Change into the specified directory before attempting to
+ install a library. Used when the libraries are in
+ subdirectories of the main package.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>-s</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>Require the presence of a <emphasis
+ role="bold">.so</emphasis> library as one of the libraries
+ that is installed.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>-a</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>Require the presence of a <emphasis
+ role="bold">.a</emphasis> library as one of the libraries that
+ is installed.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+ </variablelist>
+
+ <para>The following example from gdbm shows the installation of
+ <emphasis role="bold">.so</emphasis>, <emphasis
+ role="bold">.a</emphasis> (and associated <emphasis
+ role="bold">.la</emphasis>) libraries into the staging library
+ area:<screen>do_stage () {
+ oe_libinstall -so -a libgdbm ${STAGING_LIBDIR}
+ install -m 0644 ${S}/gdbm.h ${STAGING_INCDIR}/
+}</screen></para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>oenote</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>Used to display an informational messages to the user.</para>
+
+ <para>The following example from net-snmp uses oenote to tell the
+ user which endianess it determined was appropriate for the target
+ device:<screen>do_configure() {
+ # Additional flag based on target endiness (see siteinfo.bbclass)
+ ENDIANESS="${@base_conditional('SITEINFO_ENDIANESS', 'le', '--with-endianness=little', '--with-endianness=big', d)}"
+ oenote Determined endianess as: $ENDIANESS
+ oe_runconf $ENDIANESS
+}</screen></para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>oewarn</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>Used to display a warning message to the user, warning of
+ something that may be problematic or unexpected.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>oedebug</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>Used to display debugging related information. These messages
+ will only be visible when bitbake is run with the <emphasis
+ role="bold">-D</emphasis> flag to enable debug output.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>oefatal</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>Used to display a fatal error message to the user, and then
+ abort the bitbake run.</para>
+
+ <para>The following example from linux-libc-headers shows the use of
+ oefatal to tell the user when it cannot find the kernel source code
+ for the specified target architecture:<screen>do_configure () {
+ case ${TARGET_ARCH} in
+ alpha*) ARCH=alpha ;;
+ arm*) ARCH=arm ;;
+ cris*) ARCH=cris ;;
+ hppa*) ARCH=parisc ;;
+ i*86*) ARCH=i386 ;;
+ ia64*) ARCH=ia64 ;;
+ mips*) ARCH=mips ;;
+ m68k*) ARCH=m68k ;;
+ powerpc*) ARCH=ppc ;;
+ s390*) ARCH=s390 ;;
+ sh*) ARCH=sh ;;
+ sparc64*) ARCH=sparc64 ;;
+ sparc*) ARCH=sparc ;;
+ x86_64*) ARCH=x86_64 ;;
+ esac
+ if test ! -e include/asm-$ARCH; then
+ oefatal unable to create asm symlink in kernel headers
+ fi
+...</screen></para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>base_conditional (python)</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>The base conditional python function is used to set a variable
+ to one of two values based on the definition of a third variable.
+ The general usage is:<screen>${@base_conditional('&lt;variable-name&gt;', '&lt;value&gt;', '&lt;true-result&gt;', &lt;false-result&gt;', d)}"</screen>where:</para>
+
+ <variablelist>
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>variable-name</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>This is the name of a variable to check.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>value</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>This is the value to compare the variable
+ against.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>true-result</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>If the variable equals the value then this is what is
+ returned by the function.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>false-result</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>If the variable does not equal the value then this is
+ what is returned by the function.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+ </variablelist>
+
+ <note>
+ <para>The ${@...} syntax is used to call python functions from
+ within a recipe or class. This is described in more detail in the
+ <xref linkend="recipes_advanced_python" /> section.</para>
+ </note>
+
+ <para>The following example from the openssl recipe shows the
+ addition of either <emphasis role="bold">-DL_ENDING</emphasis> or
+ <emphasis role="bold">-DB_ENDIAN</emphasis> depending on the value
+ of <emphasis role="bold">SITEINFO_ENDIANESS</emphasis> which is set
+ to le for little endian targets and to be for big endian
+ targets:<screen>do_compile () {
+ ...
+ # Additional flag based on target endiness (see siteinfo.bbclass)
+ CFLAG="${CFLAG} ${@base_conditional('SITEINFO_ENDIANESS', 'le', '-DL_ENDIAN', '-DB_ENDIAN', d)}"
+ ...</screen></para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+ </variablelist>
+ </section>
+
+ <section id="recipes_packages" xreflabel="packages">
+ <title>Packaging: Defining packages and their contents</title>
+
+ <para>A bitbake recipe is a set of instructions from creating one, or
+ more, packages for installation on the target device. Typically these are
+ .ipkg or .deb packages (although bitbake itself isn't associated with any
+ particular packaging format).</para>
+
+ <para>By default several packages are produced automatically without any
+ special action required on the part of the recipe author. The following
+ example of the packaging output from the helloworld example above shows
+ this packaging in action:<screen>[NOTE: package helloworld-0.1-r0: task do_package_write: started
+NOTE: Not creating empty archive for helloworld-dbg-0.1-r0
+Packaged contents of helloworld into /home/lenehan/devel/oe/build/titan-glibc-25/tmp/deploy/ipk/sh4/helloworld_0.1-r0_sh4.ipk
+Packaged contents of helloworld-doc into /home/lenehan/devel/oe/build/titan-glibc-25/tmp/deploy/ipk/sh4/helloworld-doc_0.1-r0_sh4.ipk
+NOTE: Not creating empty archive for helloworld-dev-0.1-r0
+NOTE: Not creating empty archive for helloworld-locale-0.1-r0
+NOTE: package helloworld-0.1-r0: task do_package_write: completed</screen>We
+ can see from above that the packaging did the following:</para>
+
+ <itemizedlist>
+ <listitem>
+ <para>Created a main package, <emphasis
+ role="bold">helloworld_0.1-r0_sh4.ipk</emphasis>. This package
+ contains the helloworld binary <emphasis
+ role="bold">/usr/bin/helloworld</emphasis>.</para>
+ </listitem>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>Created a documentation package, <emphasis
+ role="bold">helloworld-doc_0.1-r0_sh4.ipk</emphasis>. This package
+ contains the readme file <emphasis
+ role="bold">/usr/share/doc/helloworld/README.txt</emphasis>.</para>
+ </listitem>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>Considered creating a debug package, <emphasis
+ role="bold">helloworld-dbg-0.1-r0_sh4.ipk</emphasis>, a development
+ package <emphasis role="bold">helloworld-dev-0.1-r0_sh4.ipk</emphasis>
+ and a locale package <emphasis
+ role="bold">helloworld-locale-0.1-r0_sh4.ipk</emphasis>. It didn't
+ create the package due to the fact that it couldn't find any files
+ that would actually go in the package.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </itemizedlist>
+
+ <para>There are several things happening here which are important to
+ understand:</para>
+
+ <orderedlist>
+ <listitem>
+ <para>There is a default set of packages that are considered for
+ creation. This set of packages is controlled via the <emphasis
+ role="bold">PACKAGES</emphasis> variable.</para>
+ </listitem>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>For each package there is a default set of files and/or
+ directories that are considered to belong to those packages. The
+ documentation packages for example include anything found <emphasis
+ role="bold">/usr/share/doc</emphasis>. The set of files and
+ directories is controlled via the <emphasis
+ role="bold">FILES_&lt;package-name&gt;</emphasis> variables.</para>
+ </listitem>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>By default packages that contain no files are not created and no
+ error is generated. The decision to create empty packages or not is
+ controlled via the <emphasis role="bold">ALLOW_EMPTY</emphasis>
+ variable.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </orderedlist>
+
+ <section>
+ <title>Philosophy</title>
+
+ <para>Separate packaging, where possible, is of high importance in
+ OpenEmbedded. Many of the target devices have limited storage space and
+ RAM and giving distributions and users the option of not installing a
+ part of the package they don't need allows them to reduce the amount of
+ storage space required.</para>
+
+ <para>As an example almost no distributions will include documentation
+ or development libraries since they are not required for the day to day
+ operation of the device. In particular if your package provides multiple
+ binaries, and it would be common to only use one or the other, then you
+ should consider separating them into separate packages.</para>
+
+ <para>By default several groups of files are automatically separate out,
+ including:</para>
+
+ <variablelist>
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>dev</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>Any files required for development. This includes header
+ files, static libraries, the shared library symlinks required only
+ for linking etc. These would only ever need to be installed by
+ someone attempt to compile applications on the target device.
+ While this does happen it is very uncommon and so these files are
+ automatically moved into a separate package</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>doc</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>Any documentation related files, including man pages. These
+ are files which are of informational purposes only. For many
+ embedded devices there is no way for the user to see any of the
+ documentation anyway, and documentation can consume a lot of
+ space. By separating these out they don't take any space by
+ default but distributions and/or users may choose to install them
+ if they need some documentation on a specific package.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>locale</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>Locale information provides translation information for
+ packages. Many users do not require these translations, and many
+ devices will only want to provide them for user visible
+ components, such as UI related items, and not for system binaries.
+ By separating these out it is left up to the distribution or users
+ to decide if they are required or not.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+ </variablelist>
+ </section>
+
+ <section>
+ <title>Default packages and files</title>
+
+ <para>The defaults package settings are defined in <emphasis
+ role="bold">conf/bitbake.conf</emphasis> and are suitable for a lot of
+ recipes without any changes. The following list shows the default values
+ for the packaging related variables:</para>
+
+ <para><variablelist>
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>PACKAGES</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>This variable lists the names of each of the packages that
+ are to be generated.<screen>PACKAGES = "${PN}-dbg ${PN} ${PN}-doc ${PN}-dev ${PN}-locale"</screen>Note
+ that the order of packages is important: the packages are
+ processed in the listed order. So if two packages specify the
+ same file then the first package listed in packages will get the
+ file. This is important when packages use wildcards to specify
+ their contents.</para>
+
+ <para>For example if the main package, <emphasis
+ role="bold">${PN}</emphasis>, contains <emphasis
+ role="bold">/usr/bin/*</emphasis> (i.e. all files in <emphasis
+ role="bold">/usr/bin</emphasis>), but you want <emphasis
+ role="bold">/usr/bin/tprogram</emphasis> in a separate package,
+ <emphasis role="bold">${PN}-tpackage</emphasis>, you would need
+ to either ensure that <emphasis
+ role="bold">${PN}-tpackage</emphasis> is listed prior to
+ <emphasis role="bold">${PN}</emphasis> in <emphasis
+ role="bold">PACKAGES</emphasis> or that <emphasis
+ role="bold">FILES_${PN}</emphasis> was modified to not contain
+ the wildcard that matches <emphasis
+ role="bold">/usr/bin/tprogram</emphasis>.</para>
+
+ <para>Note that the -dbg package contains the debugging
+ information that has been extracted from binaries and libraries
+ prior to them being stripped. This package should always be the
+ first package in the package list to ensure that the debugging
+ information is correctly extracted and moved to the package
+ prior to any other packaging decisions being made.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>FILES_${PN}</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>The base package, this includes everything needed to
+ actually run the application on the target system.<screen>FILES_${PN} = "\
+ ${bindir}/* \
+ ${sbindir}/* \
+ ${libexecdir}/* \
+ ${libdir}/lib*.so.* \
+ ${sysconfdir} \
+ ${sharedstatedir} \
+ ${localstatedir} \
+ /bin/* \
+ /sbin/* \
+ /lib/*.so* \
+ ${datadir}/${PN} \
+ ${libdir}/${PN}/* \
+ ${datadir}/pixmaps \
+ ${datadir}/applications \
+ ${datadir}/idl \
+ ${datadir}/omf \
+ ${datadir}/sounds \
+ ${libdir}/bonobo/servers"</screen></para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>FILES_${PN}-dbg</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>The debugging information extracted from non-stripped
+ versions of libraries and executable's. OpenEmbedded
+ automatically extracts the debugging information into files in
+ .debug directories and then strips the original files.<screen>FILES_${PN}-dbg = "\
+ ${bindir}/.debug \
+ ${sbindir}/.debug \
+ ${libexecdir}/.debug \
+ ${libdir}/.debug \
+ /bin/.debug \
+ /sbin/.debug \
+ /lib/.debug \
+ ${libdir}/${PN}/.debug"</screen></para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>FILES_${PN}-doc</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>Documentation related files. All documentation is
+ separated into it's own package so that it does not need to be
+ installed unless explicitly required.<screen>FILES_${PN}-doc = "\
+ ${docdir} \
+ ${mandir} \
+ ${infodir} \
+ ${datadir}/gtk-doc \
+ ${datadir}/gnome/help"</screen></para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>FILES_${PN}-dev</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>Development related files. Any headers, libraries and
+ support files needed for development work on the target.<screen>FILES_${PN}-dev = "\
+ ${includedir} \
+ ${libdir}/lib*.so \
+ ${libdir}/*.la \
+ ${libdir}/*.a \
+ ${libdir}/*.o \
+ ${libdir}/pkgconfig \
+ /lib/*.a \
+ /lib/*.o \
+ ${datadir}/aclocal"</screen></para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>FILES_${PN}-locale</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>Locale related files.<screen>FILES_${PN}-locale = "${datadir}/locale"</screen></para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+ </variablelist></para>
+ </section>
+
+ <section>
+ <title>Wildcards</title>
+
+ <para>Wildcards used in the <emphasis role="bold">FILES</emphasis>
+ variables are processed via the python function <emphasis
+ role="bold">fnmatch</emphasis>. The following items are of note about
+ this function:</para>
+
+ <itemizedlist>
+ <listitem>
+ <para><emphasis role="bold">/&lt;dir&gt;/*</emphasis>: This will
+ match all files and directories in the <emphasis
+ role="bold">dir</emphasis> - it will not match other
+ directories.</para>
+ </listitem>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para><emphasis role="bold">/&lt;dir&gt;/a*</emphasis>: This will
+ only match files, and not directories.</para>
+ </listitem>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para><emphasis role="bold">/dir</emphasis>: will include the
+ directory <emphasis role="bold">dir</emphasis> in the package, which
+ in turn will include all files in the directory and all
+ subdirectories.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </itemizedlist>
+
+ <para>Note that the order of packages effects the files that will be
+ matched via wildcards. Consider the case where we have three binaries in
+ the <command>/usr/bin</command> directory and we want the test program
+ in a separate package:<screen>/usr/bin/programa /usr/bin/programb /usr/bin/test</screen>So
+ we define a new package and instruct bitbake to include /usr/bin/test in
+ it.</para>
+
+ <screen>FILES-${PN}-test = "${bindir}/test"
+PACKAGES += "FILES-${PN}-test"</screen>
+
+ <para>When the package is regenerated no <emphasis
+ role="bold">${PN}-test</emphasis> package will be created. The reason
+ for this is that the <emphasis role="bold">PACKAGES</emphasis> line now
+ looks like this:<screen>{PN}-dbg ${PN} ${PN}-doc ${PN}-dev ${PN}-locale ${PN}-test</screen>Note
+ how <emphasis role="bold">${PN}</emphasis> is listed prior to <emphasis
+ role="bold">${PN}-test</emphasis>, and if we look at the definition of
+ <emphasis role="bold">FILES-${PN}</emphasis> it contains the <emphasis
+ role="bold">${bindir}/*</emphasis> wildcard. Since <emphasis
+ role="bold">${PN}</emphasis> is first it'll match that wildcard are be
+ moved into the <emphasis role="bold">${PN}</emphasis> package prior to
+ processing of the <emphasis role="bold">${PN}-test</emphasis>
+ package.</para>
+
+ <para>To achieve what we are trying to accomplish we have two
+ options:</para>
+
+ <orderedlist>
+ <listitem>
+ <para>Modify the definition of <emphasis
+ role="bold">${PN}</emphasis> so that the wildcard does not match the
+ test program.</para>
+
+ <para>We could do this for example:<screen>FILES-${PN} = "${bindir}/p*"</screen>So
+ now this will only match things in the bindir that start with p, and
+ therefore not match our test program. Note that <emphasis
+ role="bold">FILES-${PN}</emphasis> contains a lot more entries and
+ we'd need to add any of the other that refer to files that are to be
+ included in the package. In this case we have no other files, so
+ it's safe to do this simple declaration.</para>
+ </listitem>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>Modify the order of packages so that the <emphasis
+ role="bold">${PN}-test</emphasis> package is listed first.</para>
+
+ <para>The most obvious way to do this would be to prepend our new
+ package name to the packages list instead of appending it:<screen>PACKAGES =+ "FILES-${PN}-test"</screen>In
+ some cases this would work fine, however there is a problem with
+ this for packages that include binaries. The package will now be
+ listed before the -dbg package and often this will result in the
+ .debug directories being included in the package. In this case we
+ are explicitly listing only a single file (and not using wildcards)
+ and therefore it would be ok.</para>
+
+ <para>In general it's more common to have to redefine the entire
+ package list to include your new package plus any of the default
+ packages that you require:<screen>PACKAGES = "${PN}-dbg ${PN}-test ${PN} ${PN}-doc ${PN}-dev ${PN}-locale"</screen></para>
+ </listitem>
+ </orderedlist>
+ </section>
+
+ <section>
+ <title>Checking the packages</title>
+
+ <para>During recipe development it's useful to be able to check on
+ exactly what files went into each package, which files were not packaged
+ and which packages contain no files.</para>
+
+ <para>One of easiest method is to run find on the install directory. In
+ the install directory there is one subdirectory created per package, and
+ the files are moved into the install directory as they are matched to a
+ specific package. The following shows the packages and files for the
+ helloworld example:<screen>~/oe%&gt; find tmp/work/helloworld-0.1-r0/install
+tmp/work/helloworld-0.1-r0/install
+tmp/work/helloworld-0.1-r0/install/helloworld-locale
+tmp/work/helloworld-0.1-r0/install/helloworld-dbg
+tmp/work/helloworld-0.1-r0/install/helloworld-dev
+tmp/work/helloworld-0.1-r0/install/helloworld-doc
+tmp/work/helloworld-0.1-r0/install/helloworld-doc/usr
+tmp/work/helloworld-0.1-r0/install/helloworld-doc/usr/share
+tmp/work/helloworld-0.1-r0/install/helloworld-doc/usr/share/doc
+tmp/work/helloworld-0.1-r0/install/helloworld-doc/usr/share/doc/helloworld
+tmp/work/helloworld-0.1-r0/install/helloworld-doc/usr/share/doc/helloworld/README.txt
+tmp/work/helloworld-0.1-r0/install/helloworld
+tmp/work/helloworld-0.1-r0/install/helloworld/usr
+tmp/work/helloworld-0.1-r0/install/helloworld/usr/bin
+tmp/work/helloworld-0.1-r0/install/helloworld/usr/bin/helloworld
+~/oe%&gt;</screen>The above shows that the -local, -dbg and -dev packages are
+ all empty, and the -doc and base package contain a single file each.
+ Uses "<emphasis role="bold">-type f</emphasis>" option to find to show
+ just files will make this clearer as well.</para>
+
+ <para>In addition to the install directory the image directory (which
+ corresponds to the destination directory, <emphasis
+ role="bold">D</emphasis>) will contain any files that were not
+ packaged:<screen>~/oe%&gt; find tmp/work/helloworld-0.1-r0/image
+tmp/work/helloworld-0.1-r0/image
+tmp/work/helloworld-0.1-r0/image/usr
+tmp/work/helloworld-0.1-r0/image/usr/bin
+tmp/work/helloworld-0.1-r0/image/usr/share
+tmp/work/helloworld-0.1-r0/image/usr/share/doc
+tmp/work/helloworld-0.1-r0/image/usr/share/doc/helloworld
+~/oe%&gt;</screen>In this case all files were packaged and so there are no
+ left over files. Using find with "<emphasis role="bold">-type
+ f</emphasis>" makes this much clearer:<screen>~/oe%&gt; find tmp/work/helloworld-0.1-r0/image -type f
+~/oe%&gt;</screen></para>
+
+ <para>Messages reading missing files are also display by bitbake during
+ the package task:<screen>NOTE: package helloworld-0.1-r0: task do_package: started
+NOTE: the following files were installed but not shipped in any package:
+NOTE: /usualdir/README.txt
+NOTE: package helloworld-0.1-r0: task do_package: completed</screen>Except in
+ very unusual circumstances there should be no unpackaged files left
+ behind by a recipe.</para>
+ </section>
+
+ <section>
+ <title>Excluding files</title>
+
+ <para>There's no actual support for explicitly excluding files from
+ packaging. You could just leave them out of any package, but then you'll
+ get warnings (or errors if requesting full package checking) during
+ packaging which is not desirable. It also doesn't let other people know
+ that you've deliberately avoided packaging the file or files.</para>
+
+ <para>In order to exclude a file totally you should avoid installing it
+ in the first place during the install task.</para>
+
+ <para>In some cases it may be easier to let the package install the file
+ and then explicitly remove the file and the end of the install task. The
+ following example from the samba recipe shows the removal of several
+ files that get installed via the default install task generated by the
+ <xref linkend="autotools_class" />. By using
+ <emphasis>do_install_append</emphasis> these commands and run after the
+ autotools generated install task:</para>
+
+ <screen>do_install_append() {
+ ...
+ rm -f ${D}${bindir}/*.old
+ rm -f ${D}${sbindir}/*.old
+ ...
+}</screen>
+ </section>
+
+ <section>
+ <title>Debian naming</title>
+
+ <para>A special <emphasis>debian library name</emphasis> policy can be
+ applied for packages that contain a single shared library. When enabled
+ packages will be renamed to match the debian policy for such
+ packages.</para>
+
+ <para>Debian naming is enabled by including the debian class via either
+ <command>local.conf</command> or your distributions configuration
+ file:<screen>INHERIT += "debian"</screen></para>
+
+ <para>The policy works by looking at the shared library name and version
+ and will automatically rename the package to
+ <emphasis>&lt;libname&gt;&lt;lib-major-version&gt;</emphasis>. For
+ example if the package name (PN) is <command>foo</command> and the
+ package ships a file named <command>libfoo.so.1.2.3</command> then the
+ package will be renamed to <command>libfoo1</command> to follow the
+ debian policy.</para>
+
+ <para>If we look at the <emphasis>lzo_1.08.bb</emphasis> recipe,
+ currently at release 14, it generates a package containing a single
+ shared library :<screen>~oe/build/titan-glibc-25%&gt; find tmp/work/lzo-1.08-r14/install/
+tmp/work/lzo-1.08-r14/install/lzo
+tmp/work/lzo-1.08-r14/install/lzo/usr
+tmp/work/lzo-1.08-r14/install/lzo/usr/lib
+tmp/work/lzo-1.08-r14/install/lzo/usr/lib/liblzo.so.1
+tmp/work/lzo-1.08-r14/install/lzo/usr/lib/liblzo.so.1.0.0</screen>Without
+ debian naming this package would have been called
+ <command>lzo_1.08-r14_sh4.ipk</command> (and the corresponding dev and
+ dbg packages would have been called
+ <command>lzo-dbg_1.08-r14_sh4.ipk</command> and
+ <command>lzo-dev_1.08-r14_sh4.ipk</command>). However with debian naming
+ enabled the package is renamed based on the name of the shared library,
+ which is <command>liblzo.so.1.0.0</command> in this case. So the name
+ <command>lzo</command> is replaced with
+ <command>liblzo1</command>:<screen>~oe/build/titan-glibc-25%&gt; find tmp/deploy/ipk/ -name '*lzo*'
+tmp/deploy/ipk/sh4/liblzo1_1.08-r14_sh4.ipk
+tmp/deploy/ipk/sh4/liblzo-dev_1.08-r14_sh4.ipk
+tmp/deploy/ipk/sh4/liblzo-dbg_1.08-r14_sh4.ipk</screen></para>
+
+ <para>Some variables are available which effect the operation of the
+ debian renaming class:</para>
+
+ <variablelist>
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>LEAD_SONAME</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>If the package actually contains multiple shared libraries
+ then one will be selected automatically and a warning will be
+ generated. This variable is a regular expression which is used to
+ select which shared library from those available is to be used for
+ debian renaming.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>DEBIAN_NOAUTONAME_&lt;pkgname&gt;</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>If this variable is set to 1 for a package then debian
+ renaming will not be applied for the package.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>AUTO_LIBNAME_PKGS</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>If set this variable specifies the prefix of packages which
+ will be subject to debian renaming. This can be used to prevent
+ all of the packages being renamed via the renaming policy.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+ </variablelist>
+ </section>
+
+ <section>
+ <title>Empty packages</title>
+
+ <para>By default empty packages are ignored. Occasionally you may wish
+ to actually created empty packages, typically done when you want a
+ virtual package which will install other packages via dependencies
+ without actually installing anything itself. The <emphasis
+ role="bold">ALLOW_EMPTY</emphasis> variable is used to control the
+ creation of empty packages:</para>
+
+ <variablelist>
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>ALLOW_EMPTY</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>Controls if empty packages will be created or not. By
+ default this is <emphasis role="bold">"0"</emphasis> and empty
+ packages are not created. Setting this to <emphasis
+ role="bold">"1"</emphasis> will permit the creation of empty
+ packages (packages containing no files).</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+ </variablelist>
+ </section>
+ </section>
+
+ <section id="recipes_tasks" xreflabel="tasks">
+ <title>Tasks: Playing with tasks</title>
+
+ <para>Bitbake steps through a series of tasks when building a recipe.
+ Sometimes you need to explicitly define what a class does, such as
+ providing a <emphasis role="bold">do_install</emphasis> function to
+ implement the <emphasis>install</emphasis> task in a recipe and sometimes
+ they are provided for you by common classes, such as the autotools class
+ providing the default implementations of <emphasis>configure</emphasis>,
+ <emphasis>compile</emphasis> and <emphasis>install</emphasis>
+ tasks.</para>
+
+ <para>There are several methods available to modify the tasks that are
+ being run:</para>
+
+ <variablelist>
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>Overriding the default task implementation</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>By defining your own implementation of task you'll override
+ any default or class provided implementations.</para>
+
+ <para>For example, you can define you own implementation of the
+ compile task to override any default implementation:<screen>do_compile() {
+ oe_runmake DESTDIR=${D}
+}</screen></para>
+
+ <para>If you with to totally prevent the task from running you need
+ to define your own empty implementation. This is typically done via
+ the definition of the task using a single colon:<screen>do_configure() {
+ :
+}</screen></para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>Appending or prepending to the task</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>Sometime you want the default implementation, but you require
+ addition functionality. This can done by appending or pre-pending
+ additional functionality onto the task.</para>
+
+ <para>The following example from units shows an example of
+ installing an addition file which for some reason was not installed
+ via the autotools normal <emphasis>install</emphasis> task:<screen>do_install_append() {
+ install -d ${D}${datadir}
+ install -m 0655 units.dat ${D}${datadir}
+}</screen></para>
+
+ <para>The following example from the cherokee recipe show an example
+ of adding functionality prior to the default
+ <emphasis>install</emphasis> task. In this case it compiles a
+ program that is used during installation natively so that it will
+ work on the host. Without this the autotools default
+ <emphasis>install</emphasis> task would fail since it'd try to run
+ the program on the host which was compiled for the target:<screen>do_install_prepend () {
+ # It only needs this app during the install, so compile it natively
+ $BUILD_CC -DHAVE_SYS_STAT_H -o cherokee_replace cherokee_replace.c
+}</screen></para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>Defining a new task</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>Another option is define a totally new task, and then register
+ that with bitbake so that it runs in between two of the existing
+ tasks.</para>
+
+ <para>The following example shows a situation in which a cvs tree
+ needs to be copied over the top of an extracted tar.gz archive, and
+ this needs to be done before any local patches are applied. So a new
+ task is defined to perform this action, and then that task is
+ registered to run between the existing <emphasis>unpack</emphasis>
+ and <emphasis>patch</emphasis> tasks:<screen>do_unpack_extra(){
+ cp -pPR ${WORKDIR}/linux/* ${S}
+}
+addtask unpack_extra after do_unpack before do_patch</screen></para>
+
+ <note>
+ <para>The task to add does not have the do_ prepended to it,
+ however the tasks to insert it after and before do have the _do
+ prepended. No errors will be generated if this is wrong, the
+ additional task simple won't be executed.</para>
+ </note>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>Using overrides</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>Overrides (described fully elsewhere) allow for various
+ functionality to be performed conditionally based on the target
+ machine, distribution, architecture etc.</para>
+
+ <para>While not commonly used it is possible to use overrides when
+ defining tasks. The following example from udev shows an additional
+ file being installed for the specified machine only by performing an
+ append to the <emphasis>install</emphasis> task for the h2200
+ machine only:<screen>do_install_append_h2200() {
+ install -m 0644 ${WORKDIR}/50-hostap_cs.rules ${D}${sysconfdir}/udev/rules.d/50-hostap_cs.rules
+}</screen></para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+ </variablelist>
+ </section>
+
+ <section id="recipes_classes" xreflabel="classes">
+ <title>Classes: The separation of common functionality</title>
+
+ <para>Often a certain pattern is followed in more than one recipe, or
+ maybe some complex python based functionality is required to achieve the
+ desired end result. This is achieved through the use of classes, which can
+ be found in the classes subdirectory at the top-level of on OE
+ checkout.</para>
+
+ <para>Being aware of the available classes and understanding their
+ functionality is important because classes:</para>
+
+ <itemizedlist>
+ <listitem>
+ <para>Save developers time being performing actions that they would
+ otherwise need to perform themselves;</para>
+ </listitem>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>Perform a lot of actions in the background making a lot of
+ recipes difficult to understand unless you are aware of classes and
+ how they work;</para>
+ </listitem>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>A lot of detail on how things work can be learnt for looking at
+ how classes are implement.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </itemizedlist>
+
+ <para>A class is used via the inherit method. The following is an example
+ for the <emphasis>curl</emphasis> recipe showing that it uses three
+ classes:<screen>inherit autotools pkgconfig binconfig</screen>In this case
+ it is utilising the services of three separate classes:</para>
+
+ <variablelist>
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>autotools</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>The <xref linkend="autotools_class" /> is used by programs
+ that use the GNU configuration tools and takes care of the
+ configuration and compilation of the software;</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>pkgconfig</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>The <xref linkend="pkgconfig_class" /> is used to stage the
+ <emphasis>.pc</emphasis> files which are used by the <emphasis
+ role="bold">pkg-config</emphasis> program to provide information
+ about the package to other software that wants to link to this
+ software;</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>binconfig</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>The <xref linkend="binconfig_class" /> is used to stage the
+ <emphasis>&lt;name&gt;-config</emphasis> files which are used to
+ provide information about the package to other software that wants
+ to link to this software;</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+ </variablelist>
+
+ <para>Each class is implemented via the file in the <emphasis
+ role="bold">classes</emphasis> subdirectory named <emphasis
+ role="bold">&lt;classname&gt;.bbclass</emphasis> and these can be examined
+ for further details on a particular class, although sometimes it's not
+ easy to understand everything that's happening. Many of the classes are
+ covered in detail in various sections in this user manual.</para>
+ </section>
+
+ <section id="recipes_staging" xreflabel="staging">
+ <title>Staging: Making includes and libraries available for
+ building</title>
+
+ <para>Staging is the process of making files, such as include files and
+ libraries, available for use by other recipes. This is different to
+ installing because installing is about making things available for
+ packaging and then eventually for use on the target device. Staging on the
+ other hand is about making things available on the host system for use by
+ building later applications.</para>
+
+ <para>Taking bzip2 as an example you can see that it stages a header file
+ and it's library files:<screen>do_stage () {
+ install -m 0644 bzlib.h ${STAGING_INCDIR}/
+ oe_libinstall -a -so libbz2 ${STAGING_LIBDIR}
+}</screen></para>
+
+ <para>The <emphasis>oe_libinstall</emphasis> method used in the bzip2
+ recipe is described in the <xref linkend="recipes_methods" /> section, and
+ it takes care of installing libraries (into the staging area in this
+ case). The staging variables are automatically defined to the correct
+ staging location, in this case the main staging variables are used:</para>
+
+ <variablelist>
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>STAGING_INCDIR</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>The directory into which staged headers files should be
+ installed. This is the equivalent of the standard <emphasis
+ role="bold">/usr/include</emphasis> directory.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>STAGING_LIBDIR</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>The directory into which staged library files should be
+ installed. This is the equivalent of the standard <emphasis
+ role="bold">/usr/lib</emphasis> directory.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+ </variablelist>
+
+ <para>Additional staging related variables are covered in the <xref
+ linkend="directories_staging" /> section in <xref
+ linkend="chapter_reference" />.</para>
+
+ <para>Looking in the staging area under tmp you can see the result of the
+ bzip2 recipes staging task:<screen>%&gt; find tmp/staging -name '*bzlib*'
+tmp/staging/sh4-linux/include/bzlib.h
+%&gt; find tmp/staging -name '*libbz*'
+tmp/staging/sh4-linux/lib/libbz2.so
+tmp/staging/sh4-linux/lib/libbz2.so.1.0
+tmp/staging/sh4-linux/lib/libbz2.so.1
+tmp/staging/sh4-linux/lib/libbz2.so.1.0.2
+tmp/staging/sh4-linux/lib/libbz2.a</screen></para>
+
+ <para>As well as being used during the stage task the staging related
+ variables are used when building other packages. Looking at the gnupg
+ recipe we see two bzip2 related items:<screen>DEPENDS = "zlib <emphasis
+ role="bold">bzip2</emphasis>"
+...
+EXTRA_OECONF = "--disable-ldap \
+ --with-zlib=${STAGING_LIBDIR}/.. \
+ <emphasis role="bold">--with-bzip2=${STAGING_LIBDIR}/..</emphasis> \
+ --disable-selinux-support"
+</screen></para>
+
+ <para>Bzip2 is referred to in two places in the recipe:</para>
+
+ <variablelist>
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>DEPENDS</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>Remember that <emphasis role="bold">DEPENDS</emphasis> defines
+ the list of build time dependencies. In this case the staged headers
+ and libraries from bzip2 are required to build gnupg, and therefore
+ we need to make sure the bzip2 recipe has run and staging the
+ headers and libraries. By adding the <emphasis
+ role="bold">DEPENDS</emphasis> on bzip2 this ensures that this
+ happens.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term><emphasis role="bold">EXTRA_OECONF</emphasis></term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>This variable is used by the <xref
+ linkend="autotools_class" /> to provide options to the configure
+ script of the package. In the gnupg case it needs to be told where
+ the bzip2 headers and libraries files are, and this is done via the
+ <emphasis>--with-bzip2</emphasis> option. In this case it needs to
+ the directory which include the lib and include subdirectories.
+ Since OE doesn't define a variable for one level above the include
+ and lib directories <emphasis role="bold">..</emphasis> is used to
+ indicate one directory up. Without this gnupg would search the host
+ system headers and libraries instead of those we have provided in
+ the staging area for the target.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+ </variablelist>
+
+ <para>Remember that staging is used to make things, such as headers and
+ libraries, available to used by other recipes later on. While header and
+ libraries are the most common item requiring staging other items such as
+ the pkgconfig files need to be staged as well, while for native packages
+ the binaries also need to be staged.</para>
+ </section>
+
+ <section id="recipes_autoconf" xreflabel="about autoconf">
+ <title>Autoconf: All about autotools</title>
+
+ <para>This section is to be completed:</para>
+
+ <itemizedlist>
+ <listitem>
+ <para>About building autoconf packages</para>
+ </listitem>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>EXTRA_OECONF</para>
+ </listitem>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>Problems with /usr/include, /usr/lib</para>
+ </listitem>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>Configuring to search in the staging area</para>
+ </listitem>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>-L${STAGING_LIBDIR} vs ${TARGET_LDFLAGS}</para>
+ </listitem>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>Site files</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </itemizedlist>
+ </section>
+
+ <section id="recipes_installation_scripts" xreflabel="installation scripts">
+ <title>Installation scripts: Running scripts during package install and/or
+ removal</title>
+
+ <para>Packaging system such as .ipkg and .deb support pre and post
+ installation and pre and post removal scripts which are run during package
+ install and/or package removal on the target system.</para>
+
+ <para>These scripts can be defined in your recipes to enable actions to be
+ performed at the appropriate time. Common uses include starting new
+ daemons on installation, stopping daemons during uninstall, creating new
+ user and/or group entries during install, registering and unregistering
+ alternative implementations of commands and registering the need for
+ volatiles.</para>
+
+ <para>The following scripts are supported:</para>
+
+ <variablelist>
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>preinst</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>The preinst script is run prior to installing the contents of
+ the package. During preinst the contents of the package are not
+ available to be used as part of the script. The preinst scripts are
+ not commonly used.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>postinst</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>The postinst script is run after the installation of the
+ package has completed. During postinst the contents of the package
+ are available to be used. This is often used for the creation of
+ volatile directories, registration of daemons, starting of daemons
+ and fixing up of SUID binaries.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>prerm</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>The prerm is run prior to the removal of the contents of a
+ package. During prerm the contents of the package are still
+ available for use by the script. The prerm scripts</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>postrm</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>The postrm script is run after the completion of the removal
+ of the contents of a package. During postrm the contents of the
+ package no longer exist and therefore are not available for use by
+ the script. Postrm is most commonly used for update alternatives (to
+ tell the alternatives system that this alternative is not available
+ and another should be selected).</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+ </variablelist>
+
+ <para>Scripts are registered by defining a function for:</para>
+
+ <itemizedlist>
+ <listitem>
+ <para>pkg_&lt;scriptname&gt;_&lt;packagename&gt;</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </itemizedlist>
+
+ <para>The following example from ndisc6 shows postinst scripts being
+ registered for three of the packages that ndisc6 creates:<screen># Enable SUID bit for applications that need it
+pkg_postinst_${PN}-rltraceroute6 () {
+ chmod 4555 ${bindir}/rltraceroute6
+}
+pkg_postinst_${PN}-ndisc6 () {
+ chmod 4555 ${bindir}/ndisc6
+}
+pkg_postinst_${PN}-rdisc6 () {
+ chmod 4555 ${bindir}/rdisc6
+}</screen></para>
+
+ <note>
+ <para>These scripts will be run via <emphasis
+ role="bold">/bin/sh</emphasis> on the target device, which is typically
+ the busybox sh but could also be bash or some other sh compatible shell.
+ As always you should not use any bash extensions in your scripts and
+ stick to basic sh syntax.</para>
+ </note>
+
+ <para>Note that several classes will also register scripts, and that any
+ script you declare will have the script for the classes append to by these
+ classes. The following classes all generate additional script
+ contents:</para>
+
+ <variablelist>
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>update-rc.d</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>This class is used by daemons to register there init scripts
+ with the init code.</para>
+
+ <para>Details are provided in the <xref
+ linkend="recipes_initscripts" /> section.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>module</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>This class is used by linux kernel modules. It's responsible
+ for calling depmod and update-modules during kernel module
+ installation and removal.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>kernel</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>This class is used by the linux kernel itself. There is a lot
+ of housekeeping required both when installing and removing a kernel
+ and this class is responsible for generating the required
+ scripts.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>qpf</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>This class is used when installing and/or removing qpf fonts.
+ It register scripts to update the font paths and font cache
+ information to ensure that the font information is kept up to date
+ as fonts and installed and removed.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>update-alternatives</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>This class is used by packages that contain binaries which may
+ also be available for other packages. It tells that system that
+ another alternative is available for consideration. The alternatives
+ system will create a symlink to the correct alternative from one or
+ more available on the system.</para>
+
+ <para>Details are provided in the <xref
+ linkend="recipes_alternatives" /> section.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>gtk-icon-cache</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>This class is used by packages that add new gtk icons. It's
+ responsible for updating the icon cache when packages are installed
+ and removed.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>gconf</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para></para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>package</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>The base class used by packaging classes such as those for
+ .ipkg and .deb. The package class may create scripts used to update
+ the dynamic linkers ld cache.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+ </variablelist>
+
+ <para>The following example from p3scan shows and postinst script which
+ ensure that the required user and group entries exist, and registers the
+ need for volatiles (directories and/or files under <emphasis
+ role="bold">/var</emphasis>). In addition to explicitly declaring a
+ postinst script it uses the update-rc.d class which will result in an
+ additional entry being added to the postinst script to register the init
+ scripts and start the daemon (via call to update-rc.d as describes in the
+ <xref linkend="recipes_alternatives" /> section).<screen>inherit autotools update-rc.d
+
+...
+
+# Add havp's user and groups
+pkg_postinst_${PN} () {
+ grep -q mail: /etc/group || addgroup --system havp
+ grep -q mail: /etc/passwd || \
+ adduser --disabled-password --home=${localstatedir}/mail --system \
+ --ingroup mail --no-create-home -g "Mail" mail
+ /etc/init.d/populate-volatile.sh update
+}</screen></para>
+
+ <para>Several scripts in existing recipes will be of the following
+ form:<screen>if [ x"$D" = "x" ]; then
+ ...
+fi</screen></para>
+
+ <para>This is testing if the installation directory, <emphasis
+ role="bold">D</emphasis>, is defined and if it is no actions are
+ performed. The installation directory will not be defined under normal
+ circumstances. The primary use of this test is to permit the application
+ to be installed during root filesystem generation. In that situation the
+ scripts cannot be run since the root filesystem is generated on the host
+ system and not on the target. Any required script actions would need to be
+ performed via an alternative method if the package is to be installed in
+ the initial root filesystem (such as including any required users and
+ groups in the default <emphasis role="bold">passwd</emphasis> and
+ <emphasis role="bold">group</emphasis> files for example.)</para>
+ </section>
+
+ <section id="recipes_conffiles" xreflabel="conf files">
+ <title>Configuration files</title>
+
+ <para>Configuration files that are installed as part of a package require
+ special handling. Without special handling as soon as the user upgrades to
+ a new version of the package then changes they have made to the
+ configuration files will be lost.</para>
+
+ <para>In order to prevent this from happening you need to tell the
+ packaging system which files are configuration files. Such files will
+ result in the user being asked how the user wants to handle any
+ configuration file changes (if any), as shown in this example:<screen>Downloading http://nynaeve.twibble.org/ipkg-titan-glibc//./p3scan_2.9.05d-r1_sh4.ipk
+ Configuration file '/etc/p3scan/p3scan.conf'
+ ==&gt; File on system created by you or by a script.
+ ==&gt; File also in package provided by package maintainer.
+ What would you like to do about it ? Your options are:
+ Y or I : install the package maintainer's version
+ N or O : keep your currently-installed version
+ D : show the differences between the versions (if diff is installed)
+ The default action is to keep your current version.
+ *** p3scan.conf (Y/I/N/O/D) [default=N] ?</screen>To declare a file as a
+ configuration file you need to define the
+ <command>CONFFILES_&lt;pkgname&gt;</command> variable as a whitespace
+ separated list of configuration files. The following example from clamav
+ shows two files being marked as configuration files:<screen>CONFFILES_${PN}-daemon = "${sysconfdir}/clamd.conf \
+ ${sysconfdir}/default/clamav-daemon"</screen>Note
+ the user of <command>${PN}-daemon</command> as the package name. The
+ <command>${PN}</command> variable will expand to <command>clamav</command>
+ and therefore these conf files are declared as being in the clamav-daemon
+ package.</para>
+ </section>
+
+ <section id="recipes_package_relationships"
+ xreflabel="package relationships files">
+ <title>Package relationships</title>
+
+ <para>Explicit relationships between packages are support by packaging
+ formats such as ipkg and deb. These relationships include describing
+ conflicting packages and recommended packages.</para>
+
+ <para>The following variables control the package relationships in the
+ recipes:</para>
+
+ <variablelist>
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>RRECOMMENDS</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>Used to specify other packages that are recommended to be
+ installed when this package is installed. Generally this means while
+ the recommended packages are not required they provide some sort of
+ functionality which users would usually want.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>RCONFLICTS</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>Used to specify other packages that conflict with this
+ package. Two packages that conflict cannot be installed at the same
+ time.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>RREPLACES</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>Used to specify that the current package replaces an older
+ package with a different name. During package installing the package
+ that is being replaced will be removed since it is no longer needed
+ when this package is installed.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>RSUGGESTS</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>Used to provide a list of suggested packages to install. These
+ are packages that are related to and useful for the current package
+ but which are not actually required to use the package.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>RPROVIDES</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>Used to explicitly specify what a package provides at runtime.
+ For example hotplug support is provided by several packages, such as
+ udev and linux-hotplug. Both declare that they runtime provide
+ "hotplug". So any packages that require "hotplug" to work simply
+ declare that it RDEPENDS on "hotplug". It's up to the distribution
+ to specify which actual implementation of "virtual/xserver" is
+ used.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>PROVIDES</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>Used to explicitly specify what a package provides at build
+ time. This is typically used when two or more packages can provide
+ the same functionality. For example there are several different X
+ servers in OpenEmbedded, and each as declared as providing
+ "virtual/xserver". Therefore a package that depends on an X server
+ to build can simply declare that it DEPENDS on "virtual/xserver".
+ It's up to the distribution to specify which actual implementation
+ of "virtual/xserver" is used.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+ </variablelist>
+ </section>
+
+ <section id="recipes_fakeroot" xreflabel="fakeroot">
+ <title>Fakeroot: Dealing with the need for "root"</title>
+
+ <para>Sometimes packages requires root permissions in order to perform
+ some action, such as changing user or group owners or creating device
+ nodes. Since OpenEmbedded will not keep the user and group information
+ it's usually preferably to remove that from the makefiles. For device
+ nodes it's usually preferably to create them from the initial device node
+ lists or via udev configuration.</para>
+
+ <para>However if you can't get by without root permissions then you can
+ use <xref linkend="fakeroot" /> to simulate a root environment, without
+ the need to really give root access.</para>
+
+ <para>Using <xref linkend="fakeroot" /> is done by prefixing the
+ task:<screen>fakeroot do_install() {</screen>Since this requires fakeroot
+ you also need to add a dependency on
+ <command>fakeroot-native</command>:<screen>DEPENDS = "fakeroot-native"</screen>See
+ the fuse recipe for an example. Further information on <xref
+ linkend="fakeroot" />, including a description of it works, is provided in
+ the reference section: <xref linkend="fakeroot" />.</para>
+ </section>
+
+ <section id="recipes_native" xreflabel="native">
+ <title>Native: Packages for the build host</title>
+
+ <para>This section is to be completed.</para>
+
+ <itemizedlist>
+ <listitem>
+ <para>What native packages are</para>
+ </listitem>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>Using require with the non-native package</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </itemizedlist>
+ </section>
+
+ <section id="recipes_development" xreflabel="development">
+ <title>Development: Strategies for developing recipes</title>
+
+ <para>This section is to be completed.</para>
+
+ <itemizedlist>
+ <listitem>
+ <para>How to go about developing recipes</para>
+ </listitem>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>How do handle incrementally creating patches</para>
+ </listitem>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>How to deal with site file issues</para>
+ </listitem>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>Strategies for autotools issues</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </itemizedlist>
+ </section>
+
+ <section id="recipes_advanced_versioning" xreflabel="advanced versioning">
+ <title>Advanced versioning: How to deal with rc and pre versions</title>
+
+ <para>Special care needs to be taken when specify the version number for
+ rc and pre versions of packages.</para>
+
+ <para>Consider the case where we have an existing 1.5 version and there's
+ a new 1.6-rc1 release that you want to add.</para>
+
+ <itemizedlist>
+ <listitem>
+ <para>1.5: Existing version;</para>
+ </listitem>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>1.6-rc1: New version.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </itemizedlist>
+
+ <para>If the new package is given the version number 1.6-rc1 then
+ everything will work fine initially. However when the final release
+ happens it will be called 1.6. If you now create a 1.6 version of the
+ package you'll find that the packages are sorted into the following
+ order:</para>
+
+ <orderedlist>
+ <listitem>
+ <para>1.5</para>
+ </listitem>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>1.6</para>
+ </listitem>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>1.6-rc1</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </orderedlist>
+
+ <para>This in turn result in packaging system, such as ipkg, considering
+ the released version to be older then the rc version.</para>
+
+ <para>In OpenEmbedded the correct naming of pre and rc versions is to use
+ the previous version number followed by a + followed by the new version
+ number. So the 1.6-rc1 release would be given the version number:</para>
+
+ <itemizedlist>
+ <listitem>
+ <para>1.5+1.6-rc1</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </itemizedlist>
+
+ <para>These would result in the eventually ordering being:</para>
+
+ <orderedlist>
+ <listitem>
+ <para>1.5</para>
+ </listitem>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>1.5+1.6-rc1</para>
+ </listitem>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>1.6</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </orderedlist>
+
+ <para>This is the correct order and the packaging system will now work as
+ expected.</para>
+ </section>
+
+ <section id="recipes_require" xreflabel="require">
+ <title>Require/include: Reusing recipe contents</title>
+
+ <para>In many packages where you are maintaining multiple versions you'll
+ often end up with several recipes which are either identical, or have only
+ minor differences between them.</para>
+
+ <para>The require and/or include directive can be used to include common
+ content from one file into other. You should always look for a way to
+ factor out common functionality into an include file when adding new
+ versions of a recipe.</para>
+
+ <note>
+ <para>Both require and include perform the same function - including the
+ contents of another file into this recipe. The difference is that
+ require will generate an error if the file is not found while include
+ will not. For this reason include should not be used in new
+ recipes.</para>
+ </note>
+
+ <para>For example the clamav recipe looks like this:<screen>require clamav.inc
+
+PR = "r0"</screen>Note that all of the functionality of the recipe is provided
+ in the clamav.inc file, only the release number is defined in the recipe.
+ Each of the recipes includes the same <emphasis
+ role="bold">clamav.inc</emphasis> file to save having to duplicate any
+ functionality. This also means that as new versions are released it's a
+ simple matter of copying the recipe and resetting the release number back
+ to zero.</para>
+
+ <para>The following example from iproute2 shows the recipe adding
+ additional patches that are not specified by the common included file.
+ These are patches only needed for newer release and by only adding them in
+ this recipe it permits the common code to be used for both old and new
+ recipes:<screen>PR = "r1"
+
+SRC_URI += "file://iproute2-2.6.15_no_strip.diff;patch=1;pnum=0 \
+ file://new-flex-fix.patch;patch=1"
+
+require iproute2.inc
+
+DATE = "060323"</screen></para>
+
+ <para>The following example from cherokee shows a similar method of
+ including additional patches for this version only. However it also show
+ another technique in which the configure task is defined in the recipe for
+ this version, thus replacing the <emphasis>configure</emphasis> task that
+ is provided by the common include:<screen>PR = "r7"
+
+SRC_URI_append = "file://configure.patch;patch=1 \
+ file://Makefile.in.patch;patch=1 \
+ file://Makefile.cget.patch;patch=1 \
+ file://util.patch;patch=1"
+
+require cherokee.inc
+
+do_configure() {
+ gnu-configize
+ oe_runconf
+ sed -i 's:-L\$:-L${STAGING_LIBDIR} -L\$:' ${S}/*libtool
+}</screen></para>
+ </section>
+
+ <section id="recipes_advanced_python" xreflabel="advanced python">
+ <title>Python: Advanced functionality with python</title>
+
+ <para>Recipes permit the use of python code in order to perform complex
+ operations which are not possible with the normal recipe syntax and
+ variables. Python can be used in both variable assignments and in the
+ implementation of tasks.</para>
+
+ <para>For variable assignments python code is indicated via the use of
+ <emphasis>${@...}</emphasis>, as shown in the following example:<screen>TAG = ${@bb.data.getVar('PV',d,1).replace('.', '_')}</screen></para>
+
+ <para>The above example retrieves the PV variable from the bitbake data
+ object, the replaces any dots with underscores. Therefore if the <emphasis
+ role="bold">PV</emphasis> was <emphasis role="bold">0.9.0</emphasis> then
+ <emphasis role="bold">TAG</emphasis> will be set to <emphasis
+ role="bold">0-9-0</emphasis>.</para>
+
+ <para>Some of the more common python code in use in existing recipes is
+ shown in the following table:</para>
+
+ <variablelist>
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>bb.data.getVar(&lt;var&gt;,d,1)</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>Retrieve the data for the specified variable from the bitbake
+ database for the current recipe.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>&lt;variable&gt;.replace(&lt;key&gt;,
+ &lt;replacement&gt;)</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>Find each instance of the key and replace it with the
+ replacement value. This can also be used to remove part of a string
+ by specifying <emphasis role="bold">''</emphasis> (two single
+ quotes) as the replacement.</para>
+
+ <para>The following example would remove the <emphasis
+ role="bold">'-frename-registers'</emphasis> option from the
+ <emphasis role="bold">CFLAGS</emphasis> variable:<screen>CFLAGS := "${@'${CFLAGS}'.replace('-frename-registers', '')}"</screen></para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>os.path.dirname(&lt;filename&gt;)</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>Return the directory only part of a filename.</para>
+
+ <para>This is most commonly seen in existing recipes when settings
+ the <emphasis role="bold">FILESDIR</emphasis> variable (as described
+ in the <xref linkend="recipes_filespath_dir" /> section). By
+ obtaining name of the recipe file itself, <emphasis
+ role="bold">FILE</emphasis>, and then using os.path.dirname to strip
+ the filename part:<screen>FILESDIR = "${@os.path.dirname(bb.data.getVar('FILE',d,1))}/make-${PV}"</screen>Note
+ however that this is no longer required as <emphasis
+ role="bold">FILE_DIRNAME</emphasis> is automatically set to the
+ dirname of the <emphasis role="bold">FILE</emphasis> variable and
+ therefore this would be written in new recipes as:<screen>FILESDIR = "$FILE_DIRNAME/make-${PV}"</screen></para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>&lt;variable&gt;.split(&lt;key&gt;)[&lt;index&gt;]</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>Splits are variable around the specified key. Use <emphasis
+ role="bold">[&lt;index&gt;]</emphasis> to select one of the matching
+ items from the array generated by the split command.</para>
+
+ <para>The following example from the recipe g<emphasis
+ role="bold">enext2fs_1.3+1.4rc1.bb</emphasis> would take the
+ <emphasis role="bold">PV</emphasis> of <emphasis
+ role="bold">1.3+1.4rc1</emphasis> and split it around the <emphasis
+ role="bold">+</emphasis> sign, resulting in an array containing
+ <emphasis role="bold">1.3</emphasis> and <emphasis
+ role="bold">1.4rc1</emphasis>. It then uses the index of <emphasis
+ role="bold">[1]</emphasis> to select the second item from the list
+ (the first item is at index <emphasis role="bold">0</emphasis>).
+ Therefore <emphasis role="bold">TRIMMEDV</emphasis> would be set to
+ <emphasis role="bold">1.4rc1</emphasis> for this recipe:</para>
+
+ <screen>TRIMMEDV = "${@bb.data.getVar('PV', d, 1).split('+')[1]}"</screen>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+ </variablelist>
+
+ <para>As well as directly calling built-in python functions, those
+ functions defined by the existing classes may also be called. A set of
+ common functions is provided by the base class in <emphasis
+ role="bold">classes/base.bbclass</emphasis>:</para>
+
+ <variablelist>
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>base_conditional</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>This functions is used to set a variable to one of two values
+ based on the definition of a third variable. The general usage
+ is:<screen>${@base_conditional('&lt;variable-name&gt;', '&lt;value&gt;', '&lt;true-result&gt;', &lt;false-result&gt;', d)}"</screen>where:</para>
+
+ <variablelist>
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>variable-name</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>This is the name of a variable to check.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>value</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>This is the value to compare the variable
+ against.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>true-result</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>If the variable equals the value then this is what is
+ returned by the function.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>false-result</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>If the variable does not equal the value then this is
+ what is returned by the function.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+ </variablelist>
+
+ <para>The following example from the openssl recipe shows the
+ addition of either <emphasis role="bold">-DL_ENDING</emphasis> or
+ <emphasis role="bold">-DB_ENDIAN</emphasis> depending on the value
+ of <emphasis role="bold">SITEINFO_ENDIANESS</emphasis> which is set
+ to le for little endian targets and to be for big endian
+ targets:<screen>do_compile () {
+ ...
+ # Additional flag based on target endiness (see siteinfo.bbclass)
+ CFLAG="${CFLAG} ${@base_conditional('SITEINFO_ENDIANESS', 'le', '-DL_ENDIAN', '-DB_ENDIAN', d)}"
+ ...</screen></para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>base_contains</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>Similar to base_conditional expect that it is checking for the
+ value being an element of an array. The general usage is:<screen>${@base_contains('&lt;array-name&gt;', '&lt;value&gt;', '&lt;true-result&gt;', &lt;false-result&gt;', d)}"</screen></para>
+
+ <para>where:<variablelist>
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>array-name</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>This is the name of the array to search.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>value</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>This is the value to check for in the array.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>true-result</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>If the value is found in the array then this is what
+ is returned by the function.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>false-result</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>If the value is not found in the array then this is
+ what is returned by the function.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+ </variablelist>The following example from the task-angstrom-x11
+ recipe shows base_contains being used to add a recipe to the runtime
+ dependency list but only for machines which have a
+ touchscreen:</para>
+
+ <screen>RDEPENDS_angstrom-gpe-task-base := "\
+ ...
+ ${@base_contains("MACHINE_FEATURES", "touchscreen", "libgtkstylus", "",d)} \
+ ...</screen>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+ </variablelist>
+
+ <para>Tasks may be implemented in python by prefixing the task function
+ with "python ". In general this should not be needed and should be avoided
+ where possible. The following example from the devshell recipe shows how
+ the compile task is implemented python:<screen>python do_compile() {
+ import os
+ import os.path
+
+ workdir = bb.data.getVar('WORKDIR', d, 1)
+ shellfile = os.path.join(workdir, bb.data.expand("${TARGET_PREFIX}${DISTRO}-${MACHINE}-devshell", d))
+
+ f = open(shellfile, "w")
+
+ # emit variables and shell functions
+ devshell_emit_env(f, d, False, ["die", "oe", "autotools_do_configure"])
+
+ f.close()
+}</screen></para>
+ </section>
+
+ <section id="recipes_defaultpreference" xreflabel="default preference">
+ <title>Preferences: How to disable packages</title>
+
+ <para>When bitbake is asked to build a package and multiple versions of
+ that package are available then bitbake will normally select the version
+ that has the highest version number (where the version number is defined
+ via the <command>PV</command> variable).</para>
+
+ <para>For example if we were to ask bitbake to build procps and the
+ following packages are available:<screen>~/oe%&gt; ls packages/procps
+procps-3.1.15/ procps-3.2.1/ procps-3.2.5/ procps-3.2.7/ procps.inc
+procps_3.1.15.bb procps_3.2.1.bb procps_3.2.5.bb procps_3.2.7.bb
+~/oe%&gt;</screen>then we would expect it to select version
+ <command>3.2.7</command> (the highest version number) to build.</para>
+
+ <para>Sometimes this is not actually what you want to happen though.
+ Perhaps you have added a new version of the package that does not yet work
+ or maybe the new version has no support for your target yet. Help is at
+ hand since bitbake is not only looking at the version numbers to decided
+ which version to build but it is also looking at the preference for each
+ of those version. The preference is defined via the
+ <command>DEFAULT_PREFERENCE</command> variable contained within the
+ recipe.</para>
+
+ <para>The default preference (when no
+ <command>DEFAULT_PREFERENCE</command> is specified) is zero. Bitbake will
+ find the highest preference that is available and then for all the
+ packages at the preference level it will select the package with the
+ highest version. In general this means that adding a positive
+ <command>DEFAULT_PREFERENCE</command> will cause the package to be
+ preferred over other versions and a negative
+ <command>DEFAULT_PREFERENCE</command> will cause all other packages to be
+ preferred.</para>
+
+ <para>Imagine that you are adding procps version 4.0.0, but that it does
+ not yet work. You could delete or rename your new recipe so you can build
+ a working image, but what you really to do is just ignore the new 4.0.0
+ version until it works. By adding:<screen>DEFAULT_PREFERENCE = "-1"</screen>to
+ the recipe this is what will happen. Bitbake will now ignore this version
+ (since all of the existing versions have a preference of 0). Note that you
+ can still call bitbake directly on the recipe:<screen>bitbake -b packages/procps/procps_4.0.0.bb</screen>This
+ enables you to test, and fix the package manually without having bitbake
+ automatically select normally.</para>
+
+ <para>By using this feature in conjunction with overrides you can also
+ disable (or select) specific versions based on the override. The following
+ example from glibc shows that this version has been disabled for the sh3
+ architecture because it doesn't support sh3. This will force bitbake to
+ try and select one of the other available versions of glibc
+ instead:<screen>packages/glibc/glibc_2.3.2+cvs20040726.bb:DEFAULT_PREFERENCE_sh3 = "-99"</screen></para>
+ </section>
+
+ <section id="recipes_initscripts" xreflabel="initscripts">
+ <title>Initscripts: How to handle daemons</title>
+
+ <para>This section is to be completed.</para>
+
+ <itemizedlist>
+ <listitem>
+ <para>update-rc.d class</para>
+ </listitem>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>sh syntax</para>
+ </listitem>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>stop/stop/restart params</para>
+ </listitem>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>samlpe/standard script?</para>
+ </listitem>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>volatiles</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </itemizedlist>
+ </section>
+
+ <section id="recipes_alternatives" xreflabel="alternatives">
+ <title>Alternatives: How to handle the same command in multiple
+ packages</title>
+
+ <para>Alternatives are used when the same command is provided by multiple
+ packages. A classic example is busybox, which provides a whole set of
+ commands such as <emphasis role="bold">/bin/ls</emphasis> and <emphasis
+ role="bold">/bin/find</emphasis>, which are also provided by other
+ packages such as coreutils (<emphasis role="bold">/bin/ls</emphasis>) and
+ findutils (<emphasis role="bold">/bin/find</emphasis>).</para>
+
+ <para>A system for handling alternatives is required to allow the user to
+ choose which version of the command they wish to have installed. It should
+ be possible to install either one, or both, or remove one when both are
+ installed etc, and to have no issues with the packages overwriting files
+ from other packages.</para>
+
+ <para>The most common reason for alternatives is to reduce the size of the
+ binaries. But cutting down on features, built in help and error messages
+ and combining multiple binaries into one large binary it's possible to
+ save considerable space. Often users are not expected to use the commands
+ interactively in embedded appliances and therefore these changes have no
+ visible effect to the user. In some situations users may have interactive
+ access, or they may be more advanced users who want shell access on
+ appliances that normal don't provide it, and in these cases they should be
+ able to install the full functional version if they desire.</para>
+
+ <section>
+ <title>Example of alternative commands</title>
+
+ <para>Most distributions include busybox in place of the full featured
+ version of the commands. The following example shows a typical install
+ in which the find command, which we'll use as an example here, is the
+ busybox version:<screen>root@titan:~$ find --version
+find --version
+BusyBox v1.2.1 (2006.12.17-05:10+0000) multi-call binary
+
+Usage: find [PATH...] [EXPRESSION]
+
+root@titan:~$ which find
+which find
+/usr/bin/find</screen>If we now install the full version of find:<screen>root@titan:~$ ipkg install findutils
+ipkg install findutils
+Installing findutils (4.2.29-r0) to root...
+Downloading http://nynaeve.twibble.org/ipkg-titan-glibc//./findutils_4.2.29-r0_sh4.ipk
+Configuring findutils
+
+update-alternatives: Linking //usr/bin/find to find.findutils
+update-alternatives: Linking //usr/bin/xargs to xargs.findutils</screen></para>
+
+ <para>Then we see that the standard version of find changes to the full
+ featured implement ion:<screen>root@titan:~$ find --version
+find --version
+GNU find version 4.2.29
+Features enabled: D_TYPE O_NOFOLLOW(enabled) LEAF_OPTIMISATION
+root@titan:~$ which find
+which find
+/usr/bin/find</screen></para>
+ </section>
+
+ <section>
+ <title>Using update-alternatives</title>
+
+ <para>Two methods of using the alternatives system are available:</para>
+
+ <orderedlist>
+ <listitem>
+ <para>Via the <xref linkend="update-alternatives_class" />. This is
+ the simplest method, but is not usable in all situations.</para>
+ </listitem>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>Via directly calling the update-alternatives command.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </orderedlist>
+
+ <para>The <xref linkend="update-alternatives_class" /> is the provides
+ the simplest method of using alternatives but it only works for a single
+ alternative. For multiple alternatives they need to be manually
+ registered during post install.</para>
+
+ <para>Full details on both methods is provided in the <xref
+ linkend="update-alternatives_class" /> section of the reference
+ manual.</para>
+ </section>
+ </section>
+
+ <section id="recipes_volatiles" xreflabel="volatiles">
+ <title>Volatiles: How to handle the /var directory</title>
+
+ <para>The <emphasis role="bold">/var</emphasis> directory is for storing
+ volatile information, that is information which is constantly changing and
+ which in general may be easily recreated. In embedded applications it is
+ often desirable that such files are not stored on disk or flash for
+ various reasons including:</para>
+
+ <itemizedlist>
+ <listitem>
+ <para>The possibility of a reduced lifetime of the flash;</para>
+ </listitem>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>The limited amount of storage space available;</para>
+ </listitem>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>To ensure filesystem corruption cannot occur due to a sudden
+ power loss.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </itemizedlist>
+
+ <para>For these reasons many of the OpenEmbedded distributions use a tmpfs
+ based memory filesystem for <emphasis role="bold">/var</emphasis> instead
+ of using a disk or flash based filesystem. The consequence of this is that
+ all contents of the <emphasis role="bold">/var</emphasis> directory is
+ lost when the device is powered off or restarted. Therefore special
+ handling of <emphasis role="bold">/var</emphasis> is required in all
+ packages. Even if your distrubution does not use a tmpfs based <emphasis
+ role="bold">/var</emphasis> you need to assume it does when creating
+ packages to ensure the package can be used on those distributions that do
+ use a tmpfs based <emphasis role="bold">/var</emphasis>. This special
+ handling is provided via the <emphasis
+ role="bold">populate-volatiles.sh</emphasis> script.</para>
+
+ <note>
+ <para>If your package requires any files, directories or symlinks in
+ <emphasis role="bold">/var</emphasis> then it should be using the
+ populate-volatiles facilities.</para>
+ </note>
+
+ <section>
+ <title>Declaring volatiles</title>
+
+ <para>This section is to be completed.</para>
+
+ <itemizedlist>
+ <listitem>
+ <para>how volatiles work</para>
+ </listitem>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>default volatiles</para>
+ </listitem>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>don't include any /var stuff in packages</para>
+ </listitem>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>even if your distro don't use /var in tmpfs, others do</para>
+ </listitem>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>updating the volatiles cache during install</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </itemizedlist>
+ </section>
+
+ <section>
+ <title>Logging and log files</title>
+
+ <para>As a consequence of the non-volatile and/or small capacity of the
+ <emphasis role="bold">/var</emphasis> file system some distributions
+ choose methods of logging other than writing to a file. The most typical
+ is the use of an in-memory circular log buffer which can be read using
+ the <emphasis role="bold">logread</emphasis> command.</para>
+
+ <para>To ensure that each distribution is able to implement logging in a
+ method that is suitable for its goals all packages should be configured
+ by default to log via syslog, and not log directly to a file, if
+ possible. If the distribution and/or end-user requires logging to a file
+ then they can configured syslog and/or your application to implement
+ this.</para>
+ </section>
+
+ <section>
+ <title>Summary</title>
+
+ <para>In summary the following are required when dealing with
+ <command>/var</command>:</para>
+
+ <itemizedlist>
+ <listitem>
+ <para>Configure all logging to use syslog whenever possible. This
+ leaves the decision on where to log upto the individual
+ distributions.</para>
+ </listitem>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>Don't include any <command>/var</command> directories, file or
+ symlinks in packages. They would be lost on a reboot and so should
+ not be included in packages.</para>
+ </listitem>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>The only directories that you can assume exist are those
+ listed in the default volatiles file:
+ <command>packages/initscripts/initscripts-1.0/volatiles</command>.</para>
+ </listitem>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>For any other directories, files or links that are required in
+ <command>/var</command> you should install your own volatiles list
+ as part of the package.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </itemizedlist>
+ </section>
+ </section>
+
+ <section id="recipes_misc">
+ <title>Miscellaneous</title>
+
+ <para>This section is to be completed.</para>
+
+ <itemizedlist>
+ <listitem>
+ <para>about optimisation</para>
+ </listitem>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>about download directories</para>
+ </listitem>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>about parallel builds</para>
+ </listitem>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>about determining endianess (aka net-snmp, openssl, hping etc
+ style)</para>
+ </listitem>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>about PACKAGES_DYNAMIC</para>
+ </listitem>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>about LEAD_SONAME</para>
+ </listitem>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>about "python () {" - looks like it is always run when a recipe
+ is parsed? see pam/libpam</para>
+ </listitem>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>about SRCDATE with svn/cvs?</para>
+ </listitem>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>about INHIBIT_DEFAULT_DEPS?</para>
+ </listitem>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>about COMPATIBLE_MACHINE and COMPATIBLE_HOST</para>
+ </listitem>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>about SUID binaries, and the need for postinst to fix them
+ up</para>
+ </listitem>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>about passwd and group (some comment in install scripts section
+ already).</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </itemizedlist>
+
+ <para></para>
+ </section>
+</chapter> \ No newline at end of file
diff --git a/usermanual/chapters/usage.xml b/usermanual/chapters/usage.xml
new file mode 100644
index 0000000000..9fe20faf8c
--- /dev/null
+++ b/usermanual/chapters/usage.xml
@@ -0,0 +1,1193 @@
+<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
+<chapter id="chapter_using_bitbake_and_oe">
+ <title>Using bitbake and OpenEmbedded</title>
+
+ <section id="usage_introduction" xreflabel="introduction">
+ <title>Introduction</title>
+
+ <para>If your reading this manual you probably already have some idea of
+ what OpenEmbedded is all about, which is taking a lot of software and
+ creating something that you can run on another device. This involves
+ downloading some source code, compiling it, creating packages (like .deb
+ or .rpm) and/or creating boot images that can written to flash on the
+ device. The difficulties of cross-compiling and the variety of devices
+ which can be supported lead to a lot more complexity in an OpenEmbedded
+ based distribution than you'd find in a typical desktop distribution
+ (which cross-compiling isn't needed).</para>
+
+ <para>A major part of OpenEmbedded deals with compiling source code for
+ various projects. For each project this generally requires the same basic
+ set of tasks:</para>
+
+ <orderedlist>
+ <listitem>
+ <para>Download the source code, and any supporting files (such as
+ initscripts);</para>
+ </listitem>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>Extract the source code and apply any patches that might be
+ wanted;</para>
+ </listitem>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>Configure the software if needed (such as is done by running the
+ configure script);</para>
+ </listitem>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>Compile everything;</para>
+ </listitem>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>Package up all the files into some package format, like .deb or
+ .rpm or .ipk, ready for installation.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </orderedlist>
+
+ <para>There's nothing particular unusual about this process when building
+ on the machine the package is to be installed on. What makes this
+ difficult is:</para>
+
+ <orderedlist>
+ <listitem>
+ <para>Cross-compiling: cross-compiling is difficult, and lots of
+ software has no support for cross-compiling - all packages included in
+ OE are cross-compiled;</para>
+ </listitem>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>Target and host are different: This means you can't compile up a
+ program and then run it - it's compiled to run on the target system,
+ not on the system compiling it. Lots of software tries to build and
+ run little helper and/or test applications and this won't work when
+ cross-compiling.</para>
+ </listitem>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>Tool chains (compiler, linker etc) are often difficult to
+ compile. Cross tool chains are even more difficult. Typically you'd go
+ out and download a tool chain made by someone else - but not when your
+ using OE. In OE the entire toolchain is built as part of the process.
+ This may make things take longer initially and may make it more
+ difficult to get started but makes it easier to apply patches and test
+ out changes to the tool chain.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </orderedlist>
+
+ <para>Of course there's a lot more to OE then just compiling packages
+ though. Some of the features that OE supports includes:</para>
+
+ <itemizedlist>
+ <listitem>
+ <para>Support for both glibc and uclibc;</para>
+ </listitem>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>Support for building for multiple target devices from the one
+ code base;</para>
+ </listitem>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>Automatically building anything that is required for the package
+ to compile and/or run (build and run time dependencies);</para>
+ </listitem>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>Creation of flash and disk images of any one of a number of
+ types (jffs2, ext2.gz, squashfs etc) for booting directly on the
+ target device;</para>
+ </listitem>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>Support for various packaging formats;</para>
+ </listitem>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>Automatic building all of the cross-compiling tools you'll
+ need;</para>
+ </listitem>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>Support for "native" packages that are built for the host
+ computer and not for the target and used to help during the build
+ process;</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </itemizedlist>
+
+ <para>The rest of this chapter assumes you have mastered the Getting Start
+ guides to OpenEmbedded (see the OpenEmbedded web site for details), and
+ therefore have an appropriately configured setup and that you have managed
+ to actually build the cross-compilers for your target. This section talks
+ you through some of the background on what is happening with the aim of
+ helping you understand how to debug and develop within
+ OpenEmbedded.</para>
+
+ <para>You'll also not a lot of reference to variables that define specific
+ directories or change the behaviour of some part of the build process. You
+ should refer to <xref linkend="chapter_recipes" /> for full details on
+ these variables.</para>
+ </section>
+
+ <section id="usage_configuration" xreflabel="configuration">
+ <title>Configuration</title>
+
+ <para>Configuration covers basic items such as where the various files can
+ be found and where output should be placed to more specific items such as
+ which hardware is being targeted and what features you want to have
+ included in the final image. The main configuration areas in OE
+ are:</para>
+
+ <variablelist>
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>conf/machine</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>This directory contains machine configuration information. For
+ each physical device a configuration file is required in this
+ directory that describes various aspects of the device, such as
+ architecture of the device, hardware features of the device (does it
+ have usb? a keyboard? etc), the type of flash or disk images needed
+ for the device, the serial console settings (if any) etc. If you are
+ adding support for a new device you would need to create a machine
+ configuration in this directory for the device.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>conf/distro</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>This directory contains distribution related files. A
+ distribution decides how various activities are handled in the final
+ image, such as how networking configured, if usb devices will be
+ supported, what packaging system is used, which libc is used
+ etc.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>conf/bitbake.conf</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>This is the main bitbake configuration file. This file is not
+ to be edited but it is useful to look at it since it declares a
+ larger number of the predefined variables used by OE and controls a
+ lot of the base functionality provided by OE.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>conf/local.conf</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>This is the end-user specific configuration. This file needs
+ to be copied and edited and is used to specify the various working
+ directories, the machine to build for and the distribution to
+ use.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+ </variablelist>
+ </section>
+
+ <section id="usage_workspace" xreflabel="workspace">
+ <title>Work space</title>
+
+ <para>Let's start out by taking a look at a typically working area. Note
+ that this may not be exactly what see - there are a lot of options that
+ can effect exactly how things are done, but it gives us a pretty good idea
+ of whats going on. What we are looking at here is the tmp directory (as
+ specified by TMPDIR in your local.conf):<screen>~%&gt; find tmp -maxdepth 2 -type d
+tmp
+tmp/stamps
+tmp/cross
+tmp/cross/bin
+tmp/cross/libexec
+tmp/cross/lib
+tmp/cross/share
+tmp/cross/sh4-linux
+tmp/cache
+tmp/cache/titan
+tmp/work
+tmp/work/busybox-1.2.1-r13
+tmp/work/libice-1_1.0.3-r0
+tmp/work/arpwatch-2.1a15-r2
+...
+tmp/rootfs
+tmp/rootfs/bin
+tmp/rootfs/usr
+tmp/rootfs/media
+tmp/rootfs/dev
+tmp/rootfs/var
+tmp/rootfs/lib
+tmp/rootfs/sbin
+tmp/rootfs/mnt
+tmp/rootfs/boot
+tmp/rootfs/sys
+tmp/rootfs/proc
+tmp/rootfs/etc
+tmp/rootfs/home
+tmp/rootfs/tmp
+tmp/staging
+tmp/staging/man
+tmp/staging/x86_64-linux
+tmp/staging/pkgdata
+tmp/staging/pkgmaps
+tmp/staging/var
+tmp/staging/sh4-linux
+tmp/staging/local
+tmp/staging/etc
+tmp/deploy
+tmp/deploy/addons
+tmp/deploy/ipk
+tmp/deploy/sources
+tmp/deploy/images</screen></para>
+
+ <para>The various top level directories under tmp include:</para>
+
+ <variablelist>
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>stamps</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>Nothing of interest to users in here. These time stamps are
+ used by bitbake to keep track of what tasks it has completed and
+ what tasks it still has outstanding. This is how it knows that
+ certain actions have been completed and it doesn't need to do them
+ again.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>cross</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>Contains the cross-compiler toolchain. That is the gcc and
+ binutils that run on the host system but produce output for the
+ target system.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>cache</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>Nothing of interest to users in here. This contains the
+ bitbake parse cache and is used to avoid the need to parse all of
+ the recipes each time bitbake is run. This makes bitbake a lot
+ faster on the 2nd and subsequent runs.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>work</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>The work directory. This is the directory in which all
+ packages are built - this is where the source code is extract,
+ patches applied, software configure, compiled, installed and
+ package. This is where you'll spend most of you time looking when
+ working in OE.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>rootfs</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>The generated root filesystem image for your target device.
+ This is the contents of the root filesystem (NOTE: fakeroot means it
+ doesn't have the correct device special nodes and permissions to use
+ directly).</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>staging</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>Contains the staging area, which is used to stored natively
+ compiled tools and and libraries and headers for the target that are
+ required for building other software.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>deploy</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>Contains the final output from OE. This includes the
+ installation packages (typically .ipkg packages) and flash and/or
+ disk images. This is where you go to get the final product.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+ </variablelist>
+
+ <para>When people refer to the <emphasis>"tmp directory"</emphasis> this
+ is the directory them are talking about.</para>
+
+ <para>To perform a complete rebuild from script you would usually rename
+ or delete tmp and then restart your build. I recommend keeping one old
+ version of tmp around to use for comparison if something goes wrong with
+ your new build. For example:<screen>%&gt; rm -fr tmp.OLD
+$&gt; mv tmp tmp.OLD
+%&gt; bitbake bootstrap-image</screen></para>
+
+ <section id="usage_workdir" xreflabel="work directory">
+ <title>work directory (tmp/work)</title>
+
+ <para>The work directory is where all source code is unpacked into,
+ where source is configured, compiled and packaged. In other words this
+ is where all the action happens. Each bitbake recipe will produce a
+ corresponding sub directory in the work directory. The sub directory
+ name will contain the recipe name, version and the release number (as
+ defined by the PR variable within the recipe).</para>
+
+ <para>Here's an example of a few of the subdirectories under the work
+ directory:<screen>~%&gt; find tmp/work -maxdepth 1 -type d | head -4
+tmp/work
+tmp/work/busybox-1.2.1-r13
+tmp/work/libice-1_1.0.3-r0
+tmp/work/arpwatch-2.1a15-r2</screen>You can see that the first three (of
+ several hundred) recipes here and they are for release 13 of busybox
+ 1.2.1, release 0 or libice 1.1.0.3 and release 2 of arpwatch 2.1a15.
+ It's also possible that you may just have a sub directory for your
+ targets architecture and operating system in which case these
+ directories will be in that additional subdirectory, as shown
+ here:<screen>~%&gt; find tmp/work -maxdepth 2 -type d | head -4
+tmp/work
+tmp/work/sh4-linux
+tmp/work/sh4-linux/busybox-1.2.1-r13
+tmp/work/sh4-linux/libice-1_1.0.3-r0
+tmp/work/sh4-linux/arpwatch-2.1a15-r2</screen></para>
+
+ <para>The <emphasis role="bold">sh4-linux</emphasis> directory in the
+ above example is a combination of the target architecture (sh4) and
+ operating system (linux). This subdirectory has been added by the use of
+ one of OpenEmbedded's many features. In this case it's the
+ <emphasis>multimachine</emphasis> feature which is used to allow builds
+ for multiple targets within the one work directory and can be enabled on
+ a per distribution basis. This feature enables the sharing of native and
+ architecture neutral packages and building for multiple targets that
+ support the same architecture but require different linux kernels (for
+ example). We'll assume multimachine isn't being used for the rest of
+ this chapter, just remember to add the extra directory if your
+ distribution is using it.</para>
+
+ <para>Using lzo 1.08 as an example we'll examine the contents of the
+ working directory for a typical recipe:<screen>~%&gt; find tmp/work/lzo-1.08-r14 -maxdepth 1
+tmp/work/lzo-1.08-r14
+tmp/work/lzo-1.08-r14/temp
+tmp/work/lzo-1.08-r14/lzo-1.08
+tmp/work/lzo-1.08-r14/install
+tmp/work/lzo-1.08-r14/image</screen></para>
+
+ <para>The directory, <emphasis
+ role="bold">tmp/work/lzo-1.08-r14</emphasis>, is know as the
+ <emphasis>"working directory"</emphasis> for the recipe and is specified
+ via the <emphasis role="bold">WORKDIR</emphasis> variable in bitbake.
+ You'll sometimes see recipes refer directly to <emphasis
+ role="bold">WORKDIR</emphasis> and this is the directory they are
+ referencing. The <emphasis role="bold">1.08</emphasis> is the version of
+ lzo and <emphasis role="bold">r14</emphasis> is the release number, as
+ defined by the <emphasis role="bold">PR</emphasis> variable within the
+ recipe.</para>
+
+ <para>Under the working directory (<emphasis
+ role="bold">WORKDIR</emphasis>) there are four subdirectories:</para>
+
+ <variablelist>
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>temp</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>The temp directories contains logs and in some cases scripts
+ that actually implement specific tasks (such as a script to
+ configure or compile the source).</para>
+
+ <para>You can look at the logs in this directory to get more
+ information into what happened (or didn't happen). This is usually
+ the first thing to look at when things are going wrong and these
+ usually need to be included when reporting bugs.</para>
+
+ <para>The scripts can be used to see what a particular task, such
+ as configure or compile, is trying to do.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>lzo-1.08</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>This is the unpacked source code directory, which was
+ created when the lzo source code was extracted in this directory.
+ The name and format of this directory is therefore dependent on
+ the actual source code packaging. Within recipes this directory is
+ referred to as <emphasis role="bold">S</emphasis> and is usually
+ expected to be named like this, that is
+ <emphasis>"&lt;name&gt;-&lt;version&gt;"</emphasis>. If the source
+ code extracts to somewhere else then that would need to be
+ declared in the recipe by explicitly setting the value of the
+ variable <emphasis role="bold">S</emphasis> to the appropriate
+ directory.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>image</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>The image directory (or destination directory) is where the
+ software needs to be installed into in order to be packaged. This
+ directory is referred to as <emphasis role="bold">D</emphasis> in
+ recipes. So instead of installing binaries into <emphasis
+ role="bold">/usr/bin</emphasis> and libraries into <emphasis
+ role="bold">/usr/lib</emphasis> for example you would need to
+ install into <emphasis role="bold">${D}/usr/bin</emphasis> and
+ <emphasis role="bold">${D}/usr/lib</emphasis> instead. When
+ installed on the target the ${D} will be not be included so
+ they'll end up in the correct place. You definitely don't wont
+ files on your host system being replaced by cross-compiled
+ binaries for your target!</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>install</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>The install directory is used to split the installed files
+ into separate packages. One subdirectory is created per package to
+ be generated and the files are moved from the image directory
+ (<emphasis role="bold">D</emphasis>) over to this directory, and
+ into the appropriate package subdirectory, as each packaging
+ instruction is processed. Typically there will be separate
+ documentation (<emphasis>-doc</emphasis>), debugging
+ (<emphasis>-dbg</emphasis>) and development
+ (<emphasis>-dev</emphasis>) packages automatically created. There
+ are variables such as <emphasis role="bold">FILES_</emphasis> and
+ <emphasis role="bold">PACKAGES</emphasis> used in recipes which
+ control the separation of various files into individual
+ packages.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+ </variablelist>
+
+ <para>So lets show some examples of the useful information you now have
+ access to.</para>
+
+ <para>How about checking out what happened during the configuration of
+ lzo? Well that requires checking the log file for configure that is
+ generated in the temp directory:<screen>~%&gt; less tmp/work/lzo-1.08-r14/temp/log.do_configure.*
+...
+checking whether ccache sh4-linux-gcc -ml -m4 suffers the -fschedule-insns bug... unknown
+checking whether ccache sh4-linux-gcc -ml -m4 suffers the -fstrength-reduce bug... unknown
+checking whether ccache sh4-linux-gcc -ml -m4 accepts -fstrict-aliasing... yes
+checking the alignment of the assembler... 0
+checking whether to build assembler versions... no
+configure: creating ./config.status
+config.status: creating Makefile
+config.status: creating examples/Makefile
+config.status: creating include/Makefile
+config.status: creating ltest/Makefile
+config.status: creating minilzo/Makefile
+config.status: creating src/Makefile
+config.status: creating tests/Makefile
+config.status: creating config.h
+config.status: executing depfiles commands</screen></para>
+
+ <para>Or perhaps you want to see how the files were distributed into
+ individual packages prior to packaging? The install directory is where
+ the files are split into separate packages and so that shows us which
+ files end up where:<screen>~%&gt; find tmp/work/lzo-1.08-r14/install
+tmp/work/lzo-1.08-r14/install
+tmp/work/lzo-1.08-r14/install/lzo-doc
+tmp/work/lzo-1.08-r14/install/lzo-dbg
+tmp/work/lzo-1.08-r14/install/lzo-dbg/usr
+tmp/work/lzo-1.08-r14/install/lzo-dbg/usr/lib
+tmp/work/lzo-1.08-r14/install/lzo-dbg/usr/lib/.debug
+tmp/work/lzo-1.08-r14/install/lzo-dbg/usr/lib/.debug/liblzo.so.1.0.0
+tmp/work/lzo-1.08-r14/install/lzo-dev
+tmp/work/lzo-1.08-r14/install/lzo-dev/usr
+tmp/work/lzo-1.08-r14/install/lzo-dev/usr/include
+tmp/work/lzo-1.08-r14/install/lzo-dev/usr/include/lzo2a.h
+tmp/work/lzo-1.08-r14/install/lzo-dev/usr/include/lzo1y.h
+tmp/work/lzo-1.08-r14/install/lzo-dev/usr/include/lzo1.h
+tmp/work/lzo-1.08-r14/install/lzo-dev/usr/include/lzo1b.h
+tmp/work/lzo-1.08-r14/install/lzo-dev/usr/include/lzo1f.h
+tmp/work/lzo-1.08-r14/install/lzo-dev/usr/include/lzoconf.h
+tmp/work/lzo-1.08-r14/install/lzo-dev/usr/include/lzo1x.h
+tmp/work/lzo-1.08-r14/install/lzo-dev/usr/include/lzo16bit.h
+tmp/work/lzo-1.08-r14/install/lzo-dev/usr/include/lzo1a.h
+tmp/work/lzo-1.08-r14/install/lzo-dev/usr/include/lzo1z.h
+tmp/work/lzo-1.08-r14/install/lzo-dev/usr/include/lzoutil.h
+tmp/work/lzo-1.08-r14/install/lzo-dev/usr/include/lzo1c.h
+tmp/work/lzo-1.08-r14/install/lzo-dev/usr/lib
+tmp/work/lzo-1.08-r14/install/lzo-dev/usr/lib/liblzo.a
+tmp/work/lzo-1.08-r14/install/lzo-dev/usr/lib/liblzo.so
+tmp/work/lzo-1.08-r14/install/lzo-dev/usr/lib/liblzo.la
+tmp/work/lzo-1.08-r14/install/lzo.shlibdeps
+tmp/work/lzo-1.08-r14/install/lzo-locale
+tmp/work/lzo-1.08-r14/install/lzo
+tmp/work/lzo-1.08-r14/install/lzo/usr
+tmp/work/lzo-1.08-r14/install/lzo/usr/lib
+tmp/work/lzo-1.08-r14/install/lzo/usr/lib/liblzo.so.1
+tmp/work/lzo-1.08-r14/install/lzo/usr/lib/liblzo.so.1.0.0</screen></para>
+ </section>
+ </section>
+
+ <section id="usage_tasks" xreflabel="tasks">
+ <title>Tasks</title>
+
+ <para>When you go about building and installing a software package there
+ are a number of tasks that you generally follow with most software
+ packages. You probably need to start out by downloading the source code,
+ then unpacking the source code. Maye you need to apply some patches for
+ some reason. Then you might run the configure script of the package,
+ perhaps passing it some options to configure it to your liking. The you
+ might run "make install" to install the software. If your actually going
+ to make some packages, such as .deb or .rpm, then you'd have additional
+ tasks you'd perform to make them.</para>
+
+ <para>You find that building things in OpenEmbedded works in a similar way
+ - there are a number of tasks that are executed in a predefined order for
+ each recipe. Any many of the tasks correspond to those listed above like
+ <emphasis>"download the source"</emphasis>. In fact you've probably
+ already seen some of the names of these tasks - bitbake displays them as
+ they are processed:<screen>~%&gt; bitbake lzo
+NOTE: Psyco JIT Compiler (http://psyco.sf.net) not available. Install it to increase performance.
+NOTE: Handling BitBake files: \ (4541/4541) [100 %]
+NOTE: Parsing finished. 4325 cached, 0 parsed, 216 skipped, 0 masked.
+NOTE: build 200705041709: started
+
+OE Build Configuration:
+BB_VERSION = "1.8.2"
+OE_REVISION = "&lt;unknown&gt;"
+TARGET_ARCH = "sh4"
+TARGET_OS = "linux"
+MACHINE = "titan"
+DISTRO = "erouter"
+DISTRO_VERSION = "0.1-20070504"
+TARGET_FPU = ""
+
+NOTE: Resolving missing task queue dependencies
+NOTE: preferred version 2.5 of glibc not available (for item virtual/sh4-linux-libc-for-gcc)
+NOTE: Preparing Runqueue
+NOTE: Executing runqueue
+NOTE: Running task 208 of 226 (ID: 11, /home/lenehan/devel/oe/build/titan-glibc-25/packages/lzo/lzo_1.08.bb, <emphasis
+ role="bold">do_fetch</emphasis>)
+NOTE: package lzo-1.08: started
+NOTE: package lzo-1.08-r14: task <emphasis role="bold">do_fetch</emphasis>: started
+NOTE: package lzo-1.08-r14: task <emphasis role="bold">do_fetch</emphasis>: completed
+NOTE: package lzo-1.08: completed
+NOTE: Running task 209 of 226 (ID: 2, /home/lenehan/devel/oe/build/titan-glibc-25/packages/lzo/lzo_1.08.bb, <emphasis
+ role="bold">do_unpack</emphasis>)
+NOTE: package lzo-1.08: started
+NOTE: package lzo-1.08-r14: task <emphasis role="bold">do_unpack</emphasis>: started
+NOTE: Unpacking /home/lenehan/devel/oe/sources/lzo-1.08.tar.gz to /home/lenehan/devel/oe/build/titan-glibc-25/tmp/work/lzo-1.08-r14/
+NOTE: package lzo-1.08-r14: task <emphasis role="bold">do_unpack</emphasis>: completed
+NOTE: package lzo-1.08: completed
+NOTE: Running task 216 of 226 (ID: 3, /home/lenehan/devel/oe/build/titan-glibc-25/packages/lzo/lzo_1.08.bb, <emphasis
+ role="bold">do_patch</emphasis>)
+NOTE: package lzo-1.08: started
+NOTE: package lzo-1.08-r14: task <emphasis role="bold">do_patch</emphasis>: started
+NOTE: package lzo-1.08-r14: task <emphasis role="bold">do_patch</emphasis>: completed
+NOTE: package lzo-1.08: completed
+NOTE: Running task 217 of 226 (ID: 4, /home/lenehan/devel/oe/build/titan-glibc-25/packages/lzo/lzo_1.08.bb, <emphasis
+ role="bold">do_configure</emphasis>)
+NOTE: package lzo-1.08: started
+NOTE: package lzo-1.08-r14: task <emphasis role="bold">do_configure</emphasis>: started
+NOTE: package lzo-1.08-r14: task <emphasis role="bold">do_configure</emphasis>: completed
+NOTE: package lzo-1.08: completed
+NOTE: Running task 218 of 226 (ID: 12, /home/lenehan/devel/oe/build/titan-glibc-25/packages/lzo/lzo_1.08.bb, <emphasis
+ role="bold">do_qa_configure</emphasis>)
+NOTE: package lzo-1.08: started
+NOTE: package lzo-1.08-r14: task <emphasis role="bold">do_qa_configure</emphasis>: started
+NOTE: Checking sanity of the config.log file
+NOTE: package lzo-1.08-r14: task <emphasis role="bold">do_qa_configure</emphasis>: completed
+NOTE: package lzo-1.08: completed
+NOTE: Running task 219 of 226 (ID: 0, /home/lenehan/devel/oe/build/titan-glibc-25/packages/lzo/lzo_1.08.bb, <emphasis
+ role="bold">do_compile</emphasis>)
+NOTE: package lzo-1.08: started
+NOTE: package lzo-1.08-r14: task <emphasis role="bold">do_compile</emphasis>: started
+NOTE: package lzo-1.08-r14: task <emphasis role="bold">do_compile</emphasis>: completed
+NOTE: package lzo-1.08: completed
+NOTE: Running task 220 of 226 (ID: 1, /home/lenehan/devel/oe/build/titan-glibc-25/packages/lzo/lzo_1.08.bb, <emphasis
+ role="bold">do_install</emphasis>)
+NOTE: package lzo-1.08: started
+NOTE: package lzo-1.08-r14: task <emphasis role="bold">do_install</emphasis>: started
+NOTE: package lzo-1.08-r14: task <emphasis role="bold">do_install</emphasis>: completed
+NOTE: package lzo-1.08: completed
+NOTE: Running task 221 of 226 (ID: 5, /home/lenehan/devel/oe/build/titan-glibc-25/packages/lzo/lzo_1.08.bb, <emphasis
+ role="bold">do_package</emphasis>)
+NOTE: package lzo-1.08: started
+NOTE: package lzo-1.08-r14: task <emphasis role="bold">do_package</emphasis>: started
+NOTE: DO PACKAGE QA
+NOTE: Checking Package: lzo-dbg
+NOTE: Checking Package: lzo
+NOTE: Checking Package: lzo-doc
+NOTE: Checking Package: lzo-dev
+NOTE: Checking Package: lzo-locale
+NOTE: DONE with PACKAGE QA
+NOTE: package lzo-1.08-r14: task <emphasis role="bold">do_package</emphasis>: completed
+NOTE: package lzo-1.08: completed
+NOTE: Running task 222 of 226 (ID: 8, /home/lenehan/devel/oe/build/titan-glibc-25/packages/lzo/lzo_1.08.bb, <emphasis
+ role="bold">do_package_write</emphasis>)
+NOTE: package lzo-1.08: started
+NOTE: package lzo-1.08-r14: task <emphasis role="bold">do_package_write</emphasis>: started
+Packaged contents of lzo-dbg into /home/lenehan/devel/oe/build/titan-glibc-25/tmp/deploy/ipk/sh4/liblzo-dbg_1.08-r14_sh4.ipk
+Packaged contents of lzo into /home/lenehan/devel/oe/build/titan-glibc-25/tmp/deploy/ipk/sh4/liblzo1_1.08-r14_sh4.ipk
+NOTE: Not creating empty archive for lzo-doc-1.08-r14
+Packaged contents of lzo-dev into /home/lenehan/devel/oe/build/titan-glibc-25/tmp/deploy/ipk/sh4/liblzo-dev_1.08-r14_sh4.ipk
+NOTE: Not creating empty archive for lzo-locale-1.08-r14
+NOTE: package lzo-1.08-r14: task <emphasis role="bold">do_package_write</emphasis>: completed
+NOTE: package lzo-1.08: completed
+NOTE: Running task 223 of 226 (ID: 6, /home/lenehan/devel/oe/build/titan-glibc-25/packages/lzo/lzo_1.08.bb, do_populate_staging)
+NOTE: package lzo-1.08: started
+NOTE: package lzo-1.08-r14: task <emphasis role="bold">do_populate_staging</emphasis>: started
+NOTE: package lzo-1.08-r14: task <emphasis role="bold">do_populate_staging</emphasis>: completed
+NOTE: package lzo-1.08: completed
+NOTE: Running task 224 of 226 (ID: 9, /home/lenehan/devel/oe/build/titan-glibc-25/packages/lzo/lzo_1.08.bb, do_qa_staging)
+NOTE: package lzo-1.08: started
+NOTE: package lzo-1.08-r14: task <emphasis role="bold">do_qa_staging</emphasis>: started
+NOTE: QA checking staging
+NOTE: package lzo-1.08-r14: task <emphasis role="bold">do_qa_staging</emphasis>: completed
+NOTE: package lzo-1.08: completed
+NOTE: Running task 225 of 226 (ID: 7, /home/lenehan/devel/oe/build/titan-glibc-25/packages/lzo/lzo_1.08.bb, do_distribute_sources)
+NOTE: package lzo-1.08: started
+NOTE: package lzo-1.08-r14: task <emphasis role="bold">do_distribute_sources</emphasis>: started
+NOTE: package lzo-1.08-r14: task <emphasis role="bold">do_distribute_sources</emphasis>: completed
+NOTE: package lzo-1.08: completed
+NOTE: Running task 226 of 226 (ID: 10, /home/lenehan/devel/oe/build/titan-glibc-25/packages/lzo/lzo_1.08.bb, do_build)
+NOTE: package lzo-1.08: started
+NOTE: package lzo-1.08-r14: task <emphasis role="bold">do_build</emphasis>: started
+NOTE: package lzo-1.08-r14: task <emphasis role="bold">do_build</emphasis>: completed
+NOTE: package lzo-1.08: completed
+NOTE: Tasks Summary: Attempted 226 tasks of which 213 didn't need to be rerun and 0 failed.
+NOTE: build 200705041709: completed</screen><note>
+ <para>The output may look different depending on the version of
+ bitbake being used, and some tasks are only run when specific options
+ are enabled in your distribution. The important point to note is that
+ the various tasks are being run and bitbake shows you each time it
+ starts and completes a task.</para>
+ </note></para>
+
+ <para>So there's a set of tasks here which are being run to generate the
+ final packages. And if you'll notice that every recipe runs through the
+ same set of tasks (ok I'll admit that it is possible that some additional
+ tasks could be run for some recipes, but we'll talk about that later). The
+ tasks that you'll need to be most familiar with are:</para>
+
+ <variablelist>
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>fetch</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>The <emphasis>fetch</emphasis> task is responsible for
+ fetching any source code that is required. This means things such as
+ downloading files and checking out from source control repositories
+ such as git or svn.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>unpack</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>The <emphasis>unpack</emphasis> task is responsible for
+ extracting files from archives, such as <emphasis
+ role="bold">.tar.gz</emphasis>, into the working area and copying
+ any additional files, such as init scripts, into the working
+ area.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>patch</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>The <emphasis>patch</emphasis> task is responsible for
+ applying any patches to the unpacked source code</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>configure</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>The <emphasis>configure</emphasis> task takes care of the
+ configuration of the package. Running a configure script
+ (<emphasis>"./configure &lt;options&gt;"</emphasis>) is probably the
+ form of configuration that is most recognised but it's not the only
+ configuration system that exists.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>compile</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>The <emphasis>compile</emphasis> task actually compiles the
+ software. This could be as simple as running <emphasis
+ role="bold">make</emphasis>.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>populate_staging (stage)</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>The <emphasis>populate_staging</emphasis> task (stage is an
+ alternate, easier to type name, that can be used to refer to this
+ task) is responsible for making available libraries and headers (if
+ any) that may be required by other packages to build. For example if
+ you compile zlib then it's headers and the library need to be made
+ available for other applications to include and link against.</para>
+
+ <note>
+ <para>This is different to the <emphasis>install</emphasis> task
+ in that this is responsible for making available libraries and
+ headers for use during build on the development host. Therefore
+ it's libraries which normal have to stage things while
+ applications normally don't need to. The
+ <emphasis>install</emphasis> task on the other hand is making
+ files available for packaging and ultimately installation on the
+ target.</para>
+ </note>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>install</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>The <emphasis>install</emphasis> task is responsible for
+ actually installing everything. Now this needs to install the
+ software into the destination directory, <emphasis
+ role="bold">D</emphasis>. This directory won't actually be a part of
+ the final package though. In other words if you install something
+ into <emphasis role="bold">${D}/bin</emphasis> then it will end up
+ in the <emphasis role="bold">/bin</emphasis> directory in the
+ package and therefore on the target.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>package</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>The <emphasis>package</emphasis> task takes the installed
+ files and splits them into separate directories under the <emphasis
+ role="bold">${WORKDIR}/install</emphasis> directory, one per
+ package. It moves the files for the destination directory, <emphasis
+ role="bold">${D}</emphasis>, that they were installed in into the
+ appropriate packages subdirectory. Usually there will be a main
+ package a separate documentation (-doc), development (-dev) and
+ debugging packages (-dbg) for example.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>package_write</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>The <emphasis>package_write</emphasis> task is responsible for
+ taking each packages subdirectory and creating any actual
+ installation package, such as .ipk, .deb or .rpm. Currently .ipk is
+ the only fully supported packing format although .deb packages are
+ being actively worked on. It should be reasonably easy for an
+ experienced OpenEmbedded developer to add support for any other
+ packaging formats they might required.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+ </variablelist>
+
+ <note>
+ <para>You'll notice that the bitbake output had tasks prefixed with
+ <emphasis>do_</emphasis>, as in <emphasis>do_install</emphasis> vs
+ <emphasis>install</emphasis>. This is slightly confusing but any task
+ <emphasis>x</emphasis> is implemented via a function called
+ <emphasis>do_x</emphasis> in the class or recipe where it is defined.
+ See places refer to the tasks via their name only and some with the
+ <emphasis>do</emphasis> prefix.</para>
+ </note>
+
+ <para>You will almost certainly notice tasks beyond these ones - there are
+ various methods available to insert additional tasks into the tasks
+ sequence. As an example the <emphasis
+ role="bold">insane.bbclass</emphasis>, which performs various QA checks,
+ does these checks by inserting a new task called
+ <emphasis>qa_configure</emphasis> between the
+ <emphasis>configure</emphasis> and <emphasis>compile</emphasis> tasks and
+ another new task called <emphasis>qa_staging</emphasis> between
+ <emphasis>populate_staging</emphasis> and <emphasis>build</emphasis>
+ tasks. The former validates the result of the
+ <emphasis>configure</emphasis> task and the late the results of the
+ <emphasis>populate_staging</emphasis> task.</para>
+
+ <para>To determine the full list of tasks available for a specific recipe
+ you can run bitbake on the recipe and asking it for the full list of
+ available tasks:<screen>~%&gt; bitbake -b packages/perl/perl_5.8.8.bb -c listtasks
+NOTE: package perl-5.8.8: started
+NOTE: package perl-5.8.8-r11: task do_listtasks: started
+do_fetchall
+do_listtasks
+do_rebuild
+do_compile
+do_build
+do_populate_staging
+do_mrproper
+do_fetch
+do_configure
+do_clean
+do_package
+do_unpack
+do_install
+do_package_write
+do_distribute_sources
+do_showdata
+do_qa_configure
+do_qa_staging
+do_patch
+NOTE: package perl-5.8.8-r11: task do_listtasks: completed
+NOTE: package perl-5.8.8: completed
+~%&gt; </screen></para>
+
+ <para>If your being observant you'll note that
+ <emphasis>listtasks</emphasis> is in fact a task itself, and that the
+ <emphasis role="bold">-c</emphasis> option to bitbake allows you to
+ explicitly run specific tasks. We'll make use of this in the next section
+ when we discuss working with a recipe.</para>
+ </section>
+
+ <section id="usage_workwithsinglerecipe"
+ xreflabel="working with a single recipe">
+ <title>Working with a single recipe</title>
+
+ <para>During development you're likely to often find yourself working on a
+ single bitbake recipe - maybe trying to fix something or add a new version
+ or perhaps working on a totally new recipe. Now that you know all about
+ tasks you can use that knowledge to help speed up the development and
+ debugging process.</para>
+
+ <para>Bitbake can be instructed to deal directly with a single recipe file
+ by passing it via the <emphasis role="bold">-b</emphasis> parameter. This
+ option takes the recipe as a parameter and instructs bitbake to process
+ the named recipe only. Note that this ignores any dependencies that are in
+ the recipe, so these must have already been built previously.</para>
+
+ <para>Here's a typically example that cleans up the package (using the
+ <emphasis>clean</emphasis> task) and the rebuilds it with debugging output
+ from bitbake enabled:<screen>~%&gt; bitbake -b &lt;bb-file&gt; -c clean
+~%&gt; bitbake -b &lt;bb-file&gt; -D</screen></para>
+
+ <para>The options to bitbake that are most useful here are:</para>
+
+ <variablelist>
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>-b &lt;bb-file&gt;</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>The recipe to process;</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>-c &lt;action&gt;</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>The action to perform, typically the name of one of the tasks
+ supported by the recipe;</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>-D</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>Display debugging information, use two <emphasis
+ role="bold">-D</emphasis>'s for additional debugging;</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>-f</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>Force an operation. This is useful in getting bitbake to
+ perform some operation it normally wouldn't do. For example, if you
+ try and call the <emphasis>compile</emphasis> task twice in a row
+ then bitbake will not do anything on the second attempt since it has
+ already performed the task. By adding <emphasis
+ role="bold">-f</emphasis> it will force it to perform the action
+ regardless of if it thinks it's been done previously.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+ </variablelist>
+
+ <para>The most common actions (used with -c) are:</para>
+
+ <variablelist>
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>fetch</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>Try to download all of the required source files, but don't do
+ anything else with them.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>unpack</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>Unpack the source file but don't apply the patches yet.
+ Sometimes you may want to look at the extracted, but not patched
+ source code and that's what just unpacking will give you (some
+ time's handy to get diffs generated against the original
+ source).</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>patch</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>Apply any patches.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>configure</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>Performs and configuration that is required for the
+ software.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>compile</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>Perform the actual compilation steps of the software.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>stage</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>If any files, such as header and libraries, will be required
+ by other packages then they need to be installed into the staging
+ area and that's what this task takes care of.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>install</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>Install the software in preparation for packaging.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>package</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>Package the software. Remember that this moves the files from
+ the installation directory, D, into the packing install area. So to
+ re-package you also need to re-install first.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>clean</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>Delete the entire directory for this version of the software.
+ Usually done to allow a test build with no chance of old files or
+ changes being left behind.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+ </variablelist>
+
+ <para>Note that each of the actions that corresponds to task's will run
+ any preceding tasks that have not yet been performed. So starting with
+ compile will also perform the fetch, unpack, patch and configure
+ actions.</para>
+
+ <para>A typically development session might involve editing files in the
+ working directory and then recompiling until it all works:<screen>[<emphasis>... test ...</emphasis>]
+~%&gt; bitbake -b packages/testapp/testapp_4.3.bb -c compile -D
+
+[<emphasis>... save a copy of main.c and make some changes ...</emphasis>]
+~%&gt; vi tmp/work/testapp-4.3-r0/main.c
+~%&gt; bitbake -b packages/testapp/testapp_4.3.bb -c compile -D -f
+
+[<emphasis>... create a patch and add it to the recipe ...</emphasis>]
+~%&gt; vi packages/testapp/testapp_4.3.bb
+
+[<emphasis>... test from clean ...</emphasis>]
+~%&gt; bitbake -b packages/testapp/testapp_4.3.bb -c clean
+~%&gt; bitbake -b packages/testapp/testapp_4.3.bb
+
+[<emphasis>... NOTE: How to create the patch is not covered at this point ...</emphasis>]</screen></para>
+
+ <para>Here's another example showing how you might go about fixing up the
+ packaging in your recipe:<screen>~%&gt; bitbake -b packages/testapp/testapp_4.3.bb -c install -f
+~%&gt; bitbake -b packages/testapp/testapp_4.3.bb -c stage -f
+~%&gt; find tmp/work/testapp_4.3/install
+...
+~%&gt; vi packages/testapp/testapp_4.3.bb</screen>At this stage you play with
+ the <emphasis role="bold">PACKAGE_</emphasis> and <emphasis
+ role="bold">FILES_</emphasis> variables and then repeat the above
+ sequence.</para>
+
+ <para>Note how we install and then stage. This is one of those things
+ where understanding the tasks helps a lot! Remember that stage moves the
+ files from where they were installed into the various subdirectories
+ (under <emphasis role="bold">${WORKDIR}/instal</emphasis>l) for each
+ package. So if you try and run a stage task without a prior install there
+ won't be any files there to stage! Note also that the stage tasks clears
+ all the subdirectories in <emphasis
+ role="bold">${WORKDIR}/install</emphasis> so you won't get any left over
+ files. But beware, the install task doesn't clear <emphasis
+ role="bold">${D}</emphasis> directory, so any left over files from a
+ previous packing attempt will be left behind (which is ok if all you care
+ about it staging).</para>
+ </section>
+
+ <section id="usage_interactive_bitbake" xreflabel="interactive bitbake">
+ <title>Interactive bitbake</title>
+
+ <para>To interactively test things use:<screen>~%&gt; bitbake -i</screen>this
+ will open the bitbake shell. From here there are a lot of commands
+ available (try help).</para>
+
+ <para>First thing you will want to do is parse all of the recipes (recent
+ bitbake version do this automatically when needed, so you don't need to
+ manually do this anymore):<screen>BB&gt;&gt; parse</screen>You can now
+ build a specific recipe:<screen>BB&gt;&gt; build net-snmp</screen>If it
+ fails you may want to clean the build before trying again:<screen>BB&gt;&gt; clean net-snmp</screen>If
+ you update the recipe by editing the .bb file (to fix some issues) then
+ you will want to clean the package, reparse the modified recipe, and the
+ build again:<screen>BB&gt;&gt; clean net-snmp
+BB&gt;&gt; reparse net-snmp
+BB&gt;&gt; build net-snmp</screen>Note that you can use wildcards in the
+ bitbake shell as well:<screen>BB&gt;&gt; build t*</screen></para>
+
+ <para></para>
+ </section>
+
+ <section id="usage_devshell" xreflabel="devshell">
+ <title>Devshell</title>
+
+ <para>One of the areas in which OpenEmbedded helps you out is by setting
+ various environment variables, such as <emphasis role="bold">CC</emphasis>
+ and <emphasis role="bold">PATH</emphasis> etc, to values suitable for
+ cross-compiling. If you wish to manually run configure scripts and compile
+ file during development it would be nice to have all those values set for
+ you. This is what devshell does - it provides you with an interactive
+ shell with all the appropriate variables set for cross-compiling.</para>
+
+ <section>
+ <title>devshell via inherit</title>
+
+ <para>This is the newer method of obtaining a devshell and is the
+ recommended way for most users now. The newer method requires that the
+ devshell class be added to you configuration by inheriting it. This is
+ usually done in your <emphasis role="bold">local.conf</emphasis> or your
+ distributions conf file:<screen><emphasis role="bold">INHERIT +=</emphasis> "src_distribute_local insane multimachine <emphasis
+ role="bold">devshell</emphasis>"</screen></para>
+
+ <para>With the inclusion of this class you'll find that devshell is
+ added as a new task that you can use on recipes:<screen>~%&gt; bitbake -b packages/lzo/lzo_1.08.bb -c listtasks
+NOTE: package lzo-1.08: started
+NOTE: package lzo-1.08-r14: task do_listtasks: started
+<emphasis role="bold">do_devshell</emphasis>
+do_fetchall
+do_listtasks
+do_rebuild
+do_compile
+do_build
+do_mrproper
+do_fetch
+do_configure
+do_clean
+do_populate_staging
+do_package
+do_unpack
+do_install
+do_package_write
+do_distribute_sources
+do_showdata
+do_qa_staging
+do_qa_configure
+do_patch
+NOTE: package lzo-1.08-r14: task do_listtasks: completed
+NOTE: package lzo-1.08: completed</screen></para>
+
+ <para>To bring up the devshell you call bitbake on a recipe and ask it
+ for the devshell task:<screen>~%&gt; ./bb -b packages/lzo/lzo_1.08.bb -c devshell
+NOTE: package lzo-1.08: started
+NOTE: package lzo-1.08-r14: task do_devshell: started
+[<emphasis>... devshell will appear here ...</emphasis>]
+NOTE: package lzo-1.08-r14: task do_devshell: completed
+NOTE: package lzo-1.08: completed</screen></para>
+
+ <para>How the devshell appears depends on the settings of the <emphasis
+ role="bold">TERMCMD</emphasis> variable - you can see the default
+ settings and other possible values in <emphasis
+ role="bold">conf/bitbake.conf</emphasis>. Feel free to try settings this
+ to something else in your local.conf. Usually you will see a new
+ terminal window open which is the devshell window.</para>
+
+ <para>The devshell task is inserted after the patch task, so if you have
+ not already run bitbake on the recipe it will download the source and
+ apply any patches prior to opening the shell.</para>
+
+ <note>
+ <para>This method of obtaining a devshell works if you using <emphasis
+ role="bold">bash</emphasis> as your shell, it does not work if you are
+ using <emphasis role="bold">zsh</emphasis> as your shell. Other shells
+ may or may not work.</para>
+ </note>
+ </section>
+
+ <section>
+ <title>devshell addon</title>
+
+ <para>The devshell addon was the original method that was used to create
+ a devshell.</para>
+
+ <para>It requires no changes to your configuration, instead you simply
+ build the devshell recipe:<screen>bitabike devshell</screen></para>
+
+ <para>and then manually startup the shell. Once in the shell you'll
+ usually want to change into the working directory for the recipe you are
+ working on:<screen>~%&gt; ./tmp/deploy/addons/sh4-linux-erouter-titan-devshell
+bash: alias: `./configure': invalid alias name
+[OE::sh4-linux-erouter-titan]:~$ cd tmp/work/lzo-1.08-r14/lzo-1.08
+[OE::sh4-linux-erouter-titan]:~tmp/work/lzo-1.08-r14/lzo-1.08$</screen><note>
+ <para>The name of the devshell addon depends on the target
+ architecture, operating system and machine name. So you name will be
+ different - just check for the appropriate name ending in
+ -devshell.</para>
+ </note></para>
+ </section>
+
+ <section>
+ <title>Working in the devshell</title>
+
+ <para>[To be done]</para>
+ </section>
+ </section>
+
+ <section id="usage_patches" xreflabel="patching">
+ <title>Patching and patch management</title>
+
+ <para>[To be done]</para>
+ </section>
+</chapter> \ No newline at end of file
diff --git a/usermanual/reference/.mtn2git_empty b/usermanual/reference/.mtn2git_empty
new file mode 100644
index 0000000000..e69de29bb2
--- /dev/null
+++ b/usermanual/reference/.mtn2git_empty
diff --git a/usermanual/reference/class_autotools.xml b/usermanual/reference/class_autotools.xml
new file mode 100644
index 0000000000..a9e1a5721a
--- /dev/null
+++ b/usermanual/reference/class_autotools.xml
@@ -0,0 +1,153 @@
+<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
+<section id="autotools_class" xreflabel="autotools class">
+ <title>autotools class</title>
+
+ <para>Autotools is one of the most commonly seen configuration methods for
+ applications. Anything that uses the standard <command>./configure; make;
+ make install</command> sequence is using autotools. Usually the configure
+ script will support a large number of options to specify various
+ installation directories, to disable and/or enable various features and
+ options to specify search paths for headers and libraries.</para>
+
+ <para>The autotools class takes care of all of the details for you. It
+ defines appropriate tasks for <emphasis>configure</emphasis>,
+ <emphasis>compile</emphasis>, <emphasis>stage</emphasis> and
+ <emphasis>install</emphasis>. At it's simplest adding an inherit for the
+ autotools class is all that is required. The netcat recipe for example
+ is:<screen>DESCRIPTION = "GNU Netcat"
+HOMEPAGE = "http://netcat.sourceforge.net"
+LICENSE = "GPLv2"
+MAINTAINER = "Your name &lt;yname@example.com&gt;"
+SECTION = "console/networking"
+PR = "r1"
+
+SRC_URI = "${SOURCEFORGE_MIRROR}/netcat/netcat-${PV}.tar.bz2"
+
+inherit autotools</screen>The header is defined, the location of the source
+ code and then the inherit. For the simplest cases this is all that is
+ required. If you need to pass additional parameters to the configure script,
+ such as for enabling and/or disabling options, then they can be specified
+ via the <command>EXTRA_OECONF</command> variable. This example from the lftp
+ recipe shows several extra options being passed to the configure
+ script:<screen>EXTRA_OECONF = "--disable-largefile --disable-rpath --with-included-readline=no"</screen>If
+ you define your own tasks for <emphasis>configure</emphasis>,
+ <emphasis>compile</emphasis>, <emphasis>stage</emphasis> or
+ <emphasis>install</emphasis> (via <command>do_&lt;taskname&gt;</command>)
+ then they will override the methods generated by the autotools class. If you
+ need to perform additional operations (rather than replacing the generated
+ operations) you can use the <command>do_&lt;task&gt;_append</command> or
+ <command>do_&lt;task&gt;_prepend</command> methods. The following example
+ from the conserver recipe shows some additional items being
+ installed:<screen># Include the init script and default settings in the package
+do_install_append () {
+ install -m 0755 -d ${D}${sysconfdir}/default ${D}${sysconfdir}/init.d
+ install -m 0644 ${WORKDIR}/conserver.default ${D}${sysconfdir}/default/conserver
+ install -m 0755 ${WORKDIR}/conserver.init ${D}${sysconfdir}/init.d/conserver
+}</screen></para>
+
+ <section>
+ <title>oe_runconf / autotools_do_configure</title>
+
+ <para>Autotools generates a configuration method called
+ <command>oe_runconf</command> which runs the actual configure script, and
+ a method called <command>autotools_do_configure</command> which generates
+ the configure file (runs automake and autoconf) and then calls
+ <command>oe_runconf</command>. The generated method for the
+ <emphasis>configure</emphasis> task, <command>do_configure</command>, just
+ calls the <command>autotools_do_configure</command> method.</para>
+
+ <para>It is sometimes desirable to implement your own
+ <command>do_configure</command> method, where additional configuration is
+ required or where you wish to inhibit the running of automake and
+ autoconf, and then manually call <command>oe_runconf</command>.</para>
+
+ <para>The following example from the ipacct recipe shows an example of
+ avoiding the use of automake/autoconf:<screen>do_configure() {
+ oe_runconf
+}</screen>Sometimes manual manipulations of the autotools files is required
+ prior to calling autoconf/automake. In this case you can defined your own
+ <command>do_configure</command> method which performs the required actions
+ and then calls <command>autotools_do_configure</command>.</para>
+ </section>
+
+ <section>
+ <title>Presetting autoconf variables (the site file)</title>
+
+ <para>The autotools configuration method has support for caching the
+ results of tests. In the cross-compilation case it is sometimes necessary
+ to prime the cache with per-calculated results (since tests designed to
+ run on the target cannot be run when cross-compiling). These are defined
+ via the site file(s) for the architecture you are using and may be
+ specific to the package you are building.</para>
+
+ <para>Autoconf uses site files as definied in the
+ <command>CONFIG_SITE</command> variable, which is a space seperate list of
+ files to load in the specified order. Details on how this variable is set
+ is provided in the <xref linkend="siteinfo_class" /> (the class
+ responsbile for setting the variable) section.</para>
+
+ <para>There are some things that you should keep in mind about the caching
+ of configure tests:</para>
+
+ <orderedlist>
+ <listitem>
+ <para>Check the other site files to see if there any entries for the
+ application you are attempting to build.</para>
+
+ <para>Sometimes entries are only updated for the target that the
+ developer has access to. If they exist for another target then it may
+ provide a good idea of what needs to be defined.</para>
+ </listitem>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>Sometimes the same cache value is used by multiple
+ applications.</para>
+
+ <para>This can have the side effect where a value added for one
+ application breaks the build of another. It is a very good idea to
+ empty the site file of all other values if you are having build
+ problems to ensure that none of the existing values are causing
+ problems.</para>
+ </listitem>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>Not all values can be stored in the cache</para>
+
+ <para>Caching of variables is defined by the author of the configure
+ script, so sometimes not all variables can be set via the cache. In
+ this case it often means resorting to patching the original configure
+ scripts to achieve the desired result.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </orderedlist>
+
+ <para>All site files are shell scripts which are run by autoconf and
+ therefore the syntax is the same as you would use in sh. There are two
+ current methods of settings variables that is used in the existing site
+ files. This include explicitly settings the value of the variable:<screen>ac_cv_sys_restartable_syscalls=yes</screen>and
+ conditionally setting the value of the variable:<screen>ac_cv_uchar=${ac_cv_uchar=no}</screen>The
+ conditional version is using shell syntax to say "<emphasis>only set this
+ to the specified value if it is not currently set</emphasis>". The
+ conditional version allows the variable to be set in the shell prior to
+ calling configure and it will then not be replaced by the value from the
+ site file.</para>
+
+ <note>
+ <para>Site files are applied in order, so the application specific site
+ files will be applied prior to the top level site file entries. The use
+ of conditional assignment means that the first definition found will
+ apply, while when not using conditionals the last definition found will
+ apply.</para>
+ </note>
+
+ <para>It is possible to disable the use of the cached values from the site
+ file by clearing the definition of <command>CONFIG_SITE</command> prior to
+ running the configure script. Doing this will disable the use of the site
+ file entirely. This however should be used as a last resort. The following
+ example from the db recipe shows an example of this:<screen># Cancel the site stuff - it's set for db3 and destroys the
+# configure.
+CONFIG_SITE = ""
+do_configure() {
+ oe_runconf
+}</screen></para>
+ </section>
+</section> \ No newline at end of file
diff --git a/usermanual/reference/class_binconfig.xml b/usermanual/reference/class_binconfig.xml
new file mode 100644
index 0000000000..049f85e1f0
--- /dev/null
+++ b/usermanual/reference/class_binconfig.xml
@@ -0,0 +1,46 @@
+<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
+<section id="binconfig_class" xreflabel="binconfig class">
+ <title>binconfig class</title>
+
+ <para>The binconfig class is for packages that install
+ <command>&lt;pkg&gt;-config</command> scripts that provide information about
+ the build settings for the package. It is usually provided by libraries and
+ then used by other packages to determine various compiler options.</para>
+
+ <para>Since the script is used at build time it is required to be copied
+ into the staging area. All the actions performed by the class are appended
+ to the <emphasis>stage</emphasis> task.</para>
+
+ <para>The actions performed by the binconfig class are:</para>
+
+ <orderedlist>
+ <listitem>
+ <para>Copies the <command>&lt;x&gt;-config</command> script from the
+ package into <command>${STAGING_BINDIR} </command>directory;</para>
+ </listitem>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>If the package is not native then it modifies the contents of the
+ <command>&lt;x&gt;-config</command> script in the staging area to ensure
+ that all the paths in the script refer to the staging area;</para>
+ </listitem>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>If the package is native then
+ the<command>&lt;x&gt;-config</command> script is renamed to
+ <command>&lt;x&gt;-config-native</command> to ensure that the native and
+ non-native versions do not interfere with each other.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </orderedlist>
+
+ <para>A package is considered to be native if it also inherits the native
+ class.</para>
+
+ <para>The class will search in source directory, <command>${S}</command>,
+ and all it's subdirectories, for files that end in
+ <command>-config</command> and process them as described above. All that is
+ required to use the class is the addition of binconfig in an inherit
+ statement:</para>
+
+ <para><screen>inherit autotools binconfig</screen></para>
+</section> \ No newline at end of file
diff --git a/usermanual/reference/class_distutils.xml b/usermanual/reference/class_distutils.xml
new file mode 100644
index 0000000000..ddc9c721ab
--- /dev/null
+++ b/usermanual/reference/class_distutils.xml
@@ -0,0 +1,48 @@
+<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
+<section id="distutils_class" xreflabel="distutils class">
+ <title>distutils class</title>
+
+ <para>Distutils is a standard python system for building and installing
+ modules. The <emphasis>distutils</emphasis> class is used to automate the
+ building of python modules that use the distutils system.</para>
+
+ <para>Any python package that requires the standard python commands to build
+ and install is using the distutils system and should be able to use this
+ class:<screen>python setup.py build
+python setup.py install</screen></para>
+
+ <para>The <emphasis>distutils</emphasis> class will perform the build and
+ install actions on the <command>setup.py</command> provided by the package,
+ as required for building distutils packages, including setting all the
+ required parameters for cross compiling. It willl also perform the following
+ actions:</para>
+
+ <orderedlist>
+ <listitem>
+ <para>Adds python-native to <command>DEPENDS</command> to ensure that
+ python is built and installed on the build host. This also ensure that
+ the version of python that is used during package creation matches the
+ version of python that will be installed on the target.</para>
+ </listitem>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>Adds python-core to <command>RDEPENDS</command> to ensure that the
+ python-core is installed when this module is installed. Note that you
+ need to manually add any other python module dependencies to
+ <command>RDEPENDS</command>.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </orderedlist>
+
+ <para>The following example from the <emphasis>moin</emphasis> recipe shows
+ how simple this can make a python package:<screen>DESCRIPTION = "A full fledged WikiWiki system written in Python"
+LICENSE = "GPL"
+SECTION = "base"
+PRIORITY = "optional"
+MAINTAINER = "Your name &lt;yname@example.com&gt;"
+PR = "r1"
+
+SRC_URI = "${SOURCEFORGE_MIRROR}/moin/moin-${PV}.tar.gz"
+
+inherit distutils</screen>The header, source location and the inherit are all
+ that is required.</para>
+</section> \ No newline at end of file
diff --git a/usermanual/reference/class_image.xml b/usermanual/reference/class_image.xml
new file mode 100644
index 0000000000..7d203f888c
--- /dev/null
+++ b/usermanual/reference/class_image.xml
@@ -0,0 +1,291 @@
+<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
+<section id="image_class" xreflabel="image class">
+ <title>image class</title>
+
+ <para>The image class is used to generate filesystem images containing a
+ root filesystem, as generated by the rootfs class for the package type, such
+ as <xref linkend="rootfs_ipkg_class" />, for use on the target device. This
+ could be a <emphasis>jffs2</emphasis> image which is to be written directly
+ into the flash on the target device for example. In addition this class also
+ configures the ipkg feeds (where to get updates from) and is able to
+ generate multiple different image types.</para>
+
+ <para>Summary of the actions performed by the
+ <emphasis>image_ipkg</emphasis> class:</para>
+
+ <orderedlist>
+ <listitem>
+ <para>Inherits the rootfs class for the appropriate package type,
+ typically <xref linkend="rootfs_ipkg_class" />, in order to bring in the
+ functionality required to generate a root filesystem image. The root
+ filesystem image is generate from a set of of packages (typically .ipkg
+ packages), and then the required images are generated using the contents
+ of the root filesystem;</para>
+ </listitem>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>Sets <command>BUILD_ALL_DEPS = "1"</command> to force the
+ dependency system to build all packages that are listed in the
+ <command>RDEPENDS</command> and/or <command>RRECOMENDS</command> of the
+ packages to be installed;</para>
+ </listitem>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>Determines the name of the image device tables or table
+ (<command>IMAGE_DEVICE_TABLES/IMAGE_DEVICE_TABLE</command>) which will
+ be used to describe the device nodes to create in
+ <command>/dev</command> directory in the root filesystem;</para>
+ </listitem>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>Erases the contents of any existing root filesystem image,
+ <command>${IMAGE_ROOTFS}</command>;</para>
+ </listitem>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>If devfs is not being used then the <command>/dev</command>
+ directory, <command>${IMAGE_ROOTFS}/dev</command>, will be created and
+ then populated with the device nodes described by the image device table
+ or tables (using "<command>makedevs -r ${IMAGE_ROOTFS} -D
+ &lt;table&gt;</command>" for each device table);</para>
+ </listitem>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>Calls into <xref linkend="rootfs_ipkg_class" /> to install all of
+ the required packages into the root filesystem;</para>
+ </listitem>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>Configures the ipkg feed information in the root filesystem for
+ the <command>FEED_URIS</command>;</para>
+ </listitem>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>Runs any image pre-processing commands as specified via
+ <command>${IMAGE_PREPROCESS_COMMAND}</command>;</para>
+ </listitem>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>Calls <command>bbimage</command> on the root filesystem for each
+ required image type, as specified via
+ <command>${IMAGE_FSTYPES}</command>, to generate the actual filesystem
+ images;</para>
+ </listitem>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>Runs any image post-processing commands, as specified via
+ <command>${IMAGE_POSTPROCESS_COMMAND}</command>.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </orderedlist>
+
+ <para>The following variables may be used to control some of the behaviour
+ of this class (remember we use <xref linkend="rootfs_ipkg_class" /> to build
+ the filesystem image, so look at the variables defined by that class as
+ well):</para>
+
+ <variablelist>
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>USE_DEVFS</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>Indicates if the image will be using devfs, the device
+ filesystem, or not. If devfs is being used then no
+ <command>/dev</command> directory will be required in the image. Set
+ to <command>"1"</command> to indicate that devfs is being used. Note
+ that devfs has been removed from the Linux kernel in the 2.6 series
+ and most platforms are moving towards the use of udev as a replacement
+ for devfs.</para>
+
+ <para>Default: <command>"0"</command></para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>IMAGE_DEVICE_TABLES</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>Specifies one, or more, files containing a list of the device
+ nodes that should be created in the <command>/dev</command> directory
+ of the image. Each file is searched for via the
+ <command>${BBPATH}</command> and therefore can be specified as a file
+ relative to the top of the build. Device files are processed in the
+ specified order. NOTE: If <command>IMAGE_DEVICE_TABLE</command> is set
+ then this variable is ignored.</para>
+
+ <para>Example: <command>IMAGE_DEVICE_TABLES =
+ "files/device_table-minimal.txt files/device_table_add-sci.txt
+ device_table_add-sm.txt"</command></para>
+
+ <para>Default:
+ <command>"files/device_table-minimal.txt"</command></para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>IMAGE_DEVICE_TABLE</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>Specifies the file that lists the device nodes that should be
+ created in the <command>/dev </command>directory of the image. This
+ needs to be an absolute filename and so should be specified relative
+ to <command>${BBPATH}</command>. Only a single device table is
+ supported. Use <command>IMAGE_DEVICE_TABLES</command> instead if you
+ want to use multiple device tables.</para>
+
+ <para>Default: <command>""</command></para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>IMAGE_PREPROCESS_COMMAND</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>Additional commands to run prior to processing the image. Note
+ that these command run within the same <xref linkend="fakeroot" />
+ instance as the rest of this class.</para>
+
+ <para>Default: <command>""</command></para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>IMAGE_POSTPROCESS_COMMAND</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>Additional commands to run after processing the image. Note that
+ these command run within the same <xref linkend="fakeroot" /> instance
+ as the rest of this class.</para>
+
+ <para>Default: <command>""</command></para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>IMAGE_FSTYPES</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>Specifies the type of image files to create. The supported image
+ types, and details on modifying existing types and on creating new
+ types, are described in the <xref linkend="image_types" /> section.
+ This variable is set to a space seperated list of image types to
+ generate.</para>
+
+ <para>Example: <command>"jffs2 tar.gz"</command></para>
+
+ <para>Default: <command>"jffs2"</command></para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>FEED_URIS</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>The name of the feeds to be configured in the image by default.
+ Each entry consists of the feed name, followed by two pound signs and
+ then followed by the actual feed URI.</para>
+
+ <para>Example: <command>FEED_URIS =
+ "example##http://dist.example.com/ipkg-titan-glibc/"</command></para>
+
+ <para>Default: <command>""</command></para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+ </variablelist>
+
+ <section>
+ <title>Special node handling (fakeroot)</title>
+
+ <para>Special nodes, such as <command>/dev</command> nodes, and files with
+ special permissions, such as suid files, are handled via the <xref
+ linkend="fakeroot" /> system. This means that when you view the contents
+ of the root filesystem these device appear to be created
+ incorrectly:</para>
+
+ <para>The <command>IMAGE_PREPROCESS_COMMAND</command> and
+ <command>IMAGE_POSTPROCESS_COMMAND</command> variables will be processed
+ within the same <xref linkend="fakeroot" /> instance as the rest of the
+ rest of this class.</para>
+ </section>
+
+ <section>
+ <title>Device (/dev) nodes</title>
+
+ <para>There are two variables that can be defined for creating device
+ nodes. The new method supports multiple device node tables and supports
+ searching for these tables via the <command>${BBPATH}</command> so that
+ relative file names may be used.</para>
+
+ <para>The following example from <command>machine/titan.conf</command>
+ shows the use of multiple device tables:</para>
+
+ <para><screen># Add the SCI devices to minimal /dev
+IMAGE_DEVICE_TABLES = "files/device_table-minimal.txt files/device_table_add-sci.txt device_table_add-sm.txt"
+</screen></para>
+
+ <para>It uses the standard minimal device tables but adds some additional
+ items which are not normally needed:</para>
+
+ <variablelist>
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>files/device_table-minimal.txt</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>This is the standard minimal set of device nodes.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>files/device_table_add-sci.txt</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>This contains details for creating the
+ <command>/dev/SC{0,1,2}</command> nodes which are required for the
+ SH processors on board SCI and SCIF serial ports. On the titan
+ hardware the serial console is provided via one of these ports and
+ so we require the device node to be present.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>device_table_add-sm.txt</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>This contains details for creating the
+ <command>/dev/sm0</command> and <command>/dev/sm0p{0,1,2}</command>
+ devices nodes for the block driver, and the associated partitions,
+ that are used to manage the on board flash on the titan
+ hardware.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+ </variablelist>
+
+ <para>Prior to support for multiple device tables this would have required
+ the creation of a titan specific device table.</para>
+ </section>
+
+ <section>
+ <title>Image types</title>
+
+ <para>The type of filesystem images to create are specified via the
+ <command>IMAGE_FSTYPES</command> variable. A full description of the
+ available image types, options of the images and details on creating new
+ image types is provided in the <xref linkend="image_types" />
+ section.</para>
+ </section>
+
+ <section>
+ <title>Package feeds (feed_uris)</title>
+
+ <para>Package feeds are used by the ipkg command to determine where to
+ retrieve updates and new packages from.</para>
+
+ <para>Multiple feeds are supported. Each feed provides a feed name and the
+ URL which will contain the packages. The following example shows the
+ addition of two feeds, one called <emphasis>base</emphasis> and one called
+ <emphasis>updates</emphasis>:</para>
+
+ <para><screen>FEED_URIS += " \
+ base##http://oe.example.com/releases/${DISTRO_VERSION}/feed/base \
+ updates##http://oe.example.com/releases/${DISTRO_VERSION}/feed/updates"</screen></para>
+ </section>
+</section> \ No newline at end of file
diff --git a/usermanual/reference/class_pkgconfig.xml b/usermanual/reference/class_pkgconfig.xml
new file mode 100644
index 0000000000..3cb5002df5
--- /dev/null
+++ b/usermanual/reference/class_pkgconfig.xml
@@ -0,0 +1,39 @@
+<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
+<section id="pkgconfig_class" xreflabel="pkgconfig class">
+ <title>pkgconfig class</title>
+
+ <para>The pkgconfig class is for packages that install
+ <command>&lt;pkg&gt;.pc</command> files. These files provide information
+ about the build settings for the package vwhich are then made available by
+ the <command>pkg-config</command> command.</para>
+
+ <para>Since the contents of the <command>.pc</command> files are used at
+ build time they need to be installed into the staging area. All the actions
+ performed by this class are appended to the <emphasis>stage</emphasis>
+ task.</para>
+
+ <para>The actions performed by the pkgconfig class are:</para>
+
+ <orderedlist>
+ <listitem>
+ <para>Copies the <command>&lt;x&gt;.pc</command> files into the
+ <command>${PKG_CONFIG_PATH}</command> directory;</para>
+ </listitem>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>If the package is not native then it modifies the contents of the
+ <command>&lt;x&gt;.pc</command> file in the
+ <command>${PKG_CONFIG_PATH}</command> area to ensure that all the paths
+ in the script refer to the staging area;</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </orderedlist>
+
+ <para>A package is considered to be native if it also inherits the native
+ class.</para>
+
+ <para>The class will search the source directory, <command>${S}</command>,
+ and all it's subdirectories, for files that end in <command>.pc</command>
+ (it will ignore those that end in <command>-uninstalled.pc)</command> and
+ process them as described above. All that is required to use the class is
+ the addition of pkgconfig in an inherit statement:<screen>inherit autotools pkgconfig</screen></para>
+</section> \ No newline at end of file
diff --git a/usermanual/reference/class_rootfs_ipkg.xml b/usermanual/reference/class_rootfs_ipkg.xml
new file mode 100644
index 0000000000..b60adf8e70
--- /dev/null
+++ b/usermanual/reference/class_rootfs_ipkg.xml
@@ -0,0 +1,215 @@
+<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
+<section id="rootfs_ipkg_class" xreflabel="rootfs_ipkg class">
+ <title>rootfs_ipkg class</title>
+
+ <para>The <emphasis>rootf_ipk</emphasis> class us used to create a root
+ filesystem for the target device from a set of .ipkg packages. The end
+ result is a directory containing all the files that need to be included in
+ the root filesystem of the target device.</para>
+
+ <para>This class is normally not used directly, but instead used from the
+ <xref linkend="image_class" /> which creates images from a set of package
+ (typically <command>.ipkg</command>) files.</para>
+
+ <para>Summary of actions performed by the <emphasis>rootfs_ipkg</emphasis>
+ class:</para>
+
+ <orderedlist>
+ <listitem>
+ <para>Erase any existing root filesystem image by deleting the entire
+ contents of <command>${IMAGE_ROOTFS}</command>;</para>
+ </listitem>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>Creates the device node directory,
+ <command>${IMAGE_ROOTFS}/dev</command>;</para>
+ </listitem>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>Determines which packages to install in order to provide the
+ locales that have been requested;</para>
+ </listitem>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>Configures ipkg to allow it to be used locally to install into the
+ root filesystem <command>${IMAGE_ROOTFS}</command>;</para>
+ </listitem>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>Installs locale related .ipkg packages;</para>
+ </listitem>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>Installs the list of requested <command>.ipkg</command> packages,
+ <command>${IPKG_INSTALL}</command>;</para>
+ </listitem>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>Creates ipkg's arch.conf as
+ <command>${IMAGE_ROOTFS}/etc/ipkg/arch.conf</command>;</para>
+ </listitem>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>Runs any preinst and postinst scripts that were specified by the
+ installed .ipkg packages;</para>
+ </listitem>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>Creates the system configuration directory
+ <command>${IMAGE_ROOTFS}/${sysconfdir}</command> (that is the
+ <command>/etc</command> directory on the target);</para>
+ </listitem>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>Runs and custom post-processing commands, as described by
+ <command>${ROOTFS_POSTPROCESS_COMMAND}</command>;</para>
+ </listitem>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>Verifies that all the ipkg's were installed correctly and reports
+ an error if they were not;</para>
+ </listitem>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>Makes available a set of functions which may be used by callers of
+ the class: <command>zap_root_password</command>,
+ <command>create_etc_timestamp</command> and
+ <command>remove_init_link</command>;</para>
+ </listitem>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>Adds the rootfs task to run after the <emphasis>install</emphasis>
+ task <command>"addtask rootfs before do_build and
+ do_install"</command>.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </orderedlist>
+
+ <para>The following variables may be used to control some of the behaviour
+ of this class:</para>
+
+ <variablelist>
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>IPKG_INSTALL</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>The list of packages which will be installed into the root
+ filesystem. This needs to be set in order for this class to perform
+ any useful work.</para>
+
+ <para>Default: empty</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>ROOTFS_POSTPROCESS_COMMAND</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>Defines additional commands to run after processing of the root
+ filesystem. Could be used to change roots password, remove parts of
+ the install kernel such as the <command>zImage</command> kernel image
+ or to edit the ipkg configuration for example.</para>
+
+ <para>Default: empty</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>PACKAGE_ARCH</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>Defines the list of architectures that are support by the target
+ platform. This is used to configure the arch settings for ipkg on the
+ target system.</para>
+
+ <para>Default: <command>"all any noarch ${TARGET_ARCH}
+ ${PACKAGE_EXTRA_ARCHS} ${MACHINE}"</command></para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>IMAGE_LINGUAS</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>Specifies which locales should be installed. This is often set
+ to <command>""</command> to indicate that no locales will be
+ installed.</para>
+
+ <para>Default: <command>"de-de fr-fr en-gb"</command></para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>EXTRA_IMAGEDEPENDS</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>A list of dependencies, this is appended to
+ <command>DEPENDS</command>. This is typically used to ensure that any
+ commands that are called by
+ <command>ROOTFS_POSTPROCESS_COMMAND</command> are actually built by
+ the system prior to being called.</para>
+
+ <para>Default: empty</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>BUILDNAME</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>The name of the build. This is either set by the distro
+ configuration (for released versions) or set to a date stamp which is
+ autogenerated by bitbake.</para>
+
+ <para>Default: <command>'date +%Y%m%d%H%M'</command></para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>IMAGE_ROOTFS</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>The path to the root of the filesystem image. You can use this
+ when you need to explicitly refer to the root filesystem
+ directory.</para>
+
+ <para>Default: <command>IMAGE_ROOTFS =
+ "${TMPDIR}/rootfs"</command></para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>DEPLOY_DIR</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>The base deploy dir. Used to find the directory containing the
+ ipkg files.</para>
+
+ <para>Default: <command>DEPLOY_DIR =
+ "${TMPDIR}/deploy"</command></para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>DEPLOY_DIR_IPK</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>The directory in which to search for the ipkg files that are to
+ be installed in the root filesystem.</para>
+
+ <para>Default: <command>DEPLOY_DIR_IPK =
+ "${DEPLOY_DIR}/ipk"</command></para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+ </variablelist>
+
+ <para>Note that the entire process is run under the control of <xref
+ linkend="fakeroot" /> in order to handle device files, uids and gids. The
+ <command>ROOTFS_POSTPROCESS_COMMAND</command> is useful due to the fact that
+ it runs within the same <xref linkend="fakeroot" /> instance as the rest of
+ this class.</para>
+
+ <para>The class also provides a function <command>real_do_rootfs</command>
+ which is executed without <xref linkend="fakeroot" /> and therefore can be
+ used from other classes, such as <xref linkend="image_class" />, that
+ are already running under the control of <xref linkend="fakeroot" />.</para>
+</section> \ No newline at end of file
diff --git a/usermanual/reference/class_siteinfo.xml b/usermanual/reference/class_siteinfo.xml
new file mode 100644
index 0000000000..4d66e85e7c
--- /dev/null
+++ b/usermanual/reference/class_siteinfo.xml
@@ -0,0 +1,180 @@
+<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
+<section id="siteinfo_class" xreflabel="siteinfo class">
+ <title>siteinfo class</title>
+
+ <para>The siteinfo class provides information for a target with a particular
+ emphasis on determining the names of the site files to be passed to
+ autoconf, as described in the <xref linkend="autotools_class" />. Full site
+ information for your target can be determined by looking at the table in the
+ class implementation found in the
+ <command>classes/siteinfo.bbclass</command> file. A typical entry contains
+ the name of the target and a list of site information for the
+ target:<screen> "sh4-linux": "endian-little bit-32 common-glibc sh-common",</screen>In
+ the above example for sh4-linux target (that's a build for an sh4 processor
+ using glibc) we see that the endianess and bit-size of target are defined
+ and an additional set of site files that should be used are listed. These
+ include a common site file for glibc and a common site file for sh
+ processors (so sh3 and sh4 can share defines). A <command>"common"</command>
+ entry is automatically added to the end of each of the definitions during
+ processing.</para>
+
+ <para>The class makes available three variables based on the information
+ provided for a target:</para>
+
+ <variablelist>
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>SITEINFO_ENDIANESS</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>Defines the endianess of the target as either
+ <command>"le"</command> (little endian) or <command>"be"</command>
+ (big endian). The target must list either
+ <command>endian-little</command> or <command>endian-big</command> in
+ it's site information.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>SITEINFO_BITS</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>Defines the bitsize of the target as either
+ <command>"32"</command> or <command>"64"</command>. The target must
+ list either <command>bit-32</command> or <command>bit-64</command> in
+ it's site information.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>CONFIG_SITE</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>Defines the site files to be used by autoconf. This is a space
+ separated list of one or more site files for the target.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+ </variablelist>
+
+ <para>A typical use for the <command>SITEINFO_ENDIANESS</command> and
+ <command>SITEINFO_BITS</command> variables is to provide configuration
+ within a recipe based on their values. The following example from the
+ <emphasis>openssl</emphasis> recipe showw the correct define for the
+ endiness of the target being passed to openssl via the compiler flags. The
+ define to add to the flags is set based on the value of the
+ <command>SITEINFO_ENDIANESS</command> variable. Note that use of the
+ <emphasis>base_conditional</emphasis> method (see the <xref
+ linkend="recipes_advanced_python" /> section) to select a value conditional
+ on the endianess setting:</para>
+
+ <para><screen> # Additional flag based on target endiness (see siteinfo.bbclass)
+ CFLAG="${CFLAG} ${@base_conditional('SITEINFO_ENDIANESS', 'le', '-DL_ENDIAN', '-DB_ENDIAN', d)}"</screen></para>
+
+ <section>
+ <title>CONFIG_SITE: The autoconf site files</title>
+
+ <para>The autotools configuration method has support for caching the
+ results of tests. In the cross-compilation case it is sometimes necessary
+ to prime the cache with per-calculated results (since tests designed to
+ run on the target cannot be run when cross-compiling). These are defined
+ via the site file(s) for the architecture you are using and may be
+ specific to the package you are building.</para>
+
+ <para>Which site files are used is determined via the
+ <command>CONFIG_SITE</command> definition which is calculated via the
+ siteinfo class. Typically the following site files will be checked for,
+ and used in the order found:</para>
+
+ <variablelist>
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>endian-(big|little)</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>Either <command>endian-big</command> or
+ <command>endian-little</command> depending on the endianess of the
+ target. This site file would contain defines that only change based
+ on if the target is little endian or big endian.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>bit-(32|64)</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>Either <command>bit-32</command> or <command>bit-64</command>
+ depending on the bitsize of the target. This site file would contain
+ defines that only change based on if the target is a 32-bit or
+ 64-bit cpu.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>common-(libc|uclibc)</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>Either <command>common-libc</command> or
+ <command>common-uclibc</command> based on the C library being used
+ for the target. This site file would contain defines the are
+ specific to the C library being used.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>&lt;arch&gt;-common</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>A common site file for the target architecture. For i386,
+ i485, i586 and i686 this would be <command>x86-common</command>, for
+ sh3 and sh4 this would be <command>sh-common</command> and for
+ various arm targets this would be
+ <command>arm-common</command>.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>common</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>This is a site file which is common for all targets and
+ contains definitions which remain the same no matter what target is
+ being built.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+ </variablelist>
+
+ <para>Each of the supported site files for a target is will be checked for
+ in several different directories. Each time a file is found it as added to
+ the list of files in the <command>CONFIG_SITE</command> variable. The
+ following directories are checked:</para>
+
+ <variablelist>
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>org.openembedded.dev/packages/&lt;packagename&gt;/site-&lt;version&gt;/</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>This directory is for site files which are specific to a
+ particular version (where version is the PV of the package) of a
+ package.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>org.openembedded.dev/packages/&lt;packagename&gt;/site/</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>This directory is for site files which are specific to a
+ particular package, but apply to all versions of the package.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>org.openembedded.dev/site/</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>This directory is for site files that are common to all
+ packages. Originally this was the only site file directory that was
+ supported.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+ </variablelist>
+ </section>
+</section> \ No newline at end of file
diff --git a/usermanual/reference/class_update-alternatives.xml b/usermanual/reference/class_update-alternatives.xml
new file mode 100644
index 0000000000..cd86e3e6ab
--- /dev/null
+++ b/usermanual/reference/class_update-alternatives.xml
@@ -0,0 +1,241 @@
+<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
+<section id="update-alternatives_class" xreflabel="update-alternatives class">
+ <title>update-alternatives class</title>
+
+ <para>Some commands are available from multiple sources. As an example we
+ have <command>/bin/sh</command> available from <emphasis>busybox</emphasis>
+ and from <emphasis>bash</emphasis>. The busybox version is better from a
+ size perspective, but limited in functionality, while the bash version is
+ much larger but also provides far more features. The alternatives system is
+ designed to handle the situation where two commands are provided by two, or
+ more, packages. It ensures that one of the alternatives is always the
+ currently selected one and ensures that there are no problems with
+ installing and/or removing the various alternatives.</para>
+
+ <para>The update-alternatives class is used to register a command provided
+ by a package that may have an alternative implementation in a some other
+ package.</para>
+
+ <para>In the following sections we'll use the <command>/bin/ping</command>
+ command as an example. This command is available as a basic version from
+ busybox and as a more advanced version from iputils.</para>
+
+ <section>
+ <title>Naming of the alternative commands</title>
+
+ <para>When supplying alternative commands the target command itself is not
+ installed directly by any of the available alternatives. This is to ensure
+ that no package will replace files that were installed by one of the other
+ available alternative packages. The alternatives system will create a
+ symlink for the target command that points to the required
+ alternative.</para>
+
+ <para>For the <command>/bin/ping</command> case this means that neither
+ busybox nor iputils should actually install a command called
+ <command>/bin/ping</command>. Instead we see that the iputils recipe
+ installs it's version of ping as
+ <command>/bin/ping.iputils</command>:<screen>do_install () {
+ install -m 0755 -d ${D}${base_bindir} ${D}${bindir} ${D}${mandir}/man8
+ # SUID root programs
+ install -m 4755 ping ${D}${base_bindir}/ping.${PN}
+ ...
+}</screen></para>
+
+ <para>If you were to look at the busybox recipe you would see that it also
+ doesn't install a command called <command>/bin/ping</command>, instead it
+ installs it's command as <command>/bin/busybox</command>.</para>
+
+ <para>The important point to note is that neither package is installing an
+ actual <command>/bin/ping</command> target command.</para>
+ </section>
+
+ <section>
+ <title>How alternatives work</title>
+
+ <para>Before proceeding lets take a look at how alternatives are handled.
+ If we have a base image that includes only busybox then look at
+ <command>/bin/ping</command> we see that it is a symlink to
+ busybox:</para>
+
+ <para><screen>root@titan:/etc# ls -l /bin/ping
+lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 7 May 3 2006 /bin/ping -&gt; busybox</screen></para>
+
+ <para>This is what is expected since the busybox version of ping is the
+ only one installed on the system. Note again that it is only a symlink and
+ not an actual command.</para>
+
+ <para>If the iputils version of ping is now installed and we look at the
+ <command>/bin/ping</command> command again we see that it has been changed
+ to a symlink pointing at the iputils version of ping -
+ <command>/bin/ping.iptils</command>:</para>
+
+ <para><screen>root@titan:/etc# ipkg install iputils-ping
+Installing iputils-ping (20020927-r2) to root...
+Downloading http://nynaeve/ipkg-titan-glibc//iputils-ping_20020927-r2_sh4.ipk
+Configuring iputils-ping
+update-alternatives: Linking //bin/ping to ping.iputils
+root@titan:/etc# ls -l /bin/ping
+lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 12 May 13 2006 /bin/ping -&gt; ping.iputils</screen></para>
+
+ <para>The iputils version is considered to be the more fully featured
+ version of ping and is therefore the default when both versions are
+ installed.</para>
+
+ <para>What happens if the iputils-ping package is removed now? The symlink
+ should be changed to point back at the busybox version:</para>
+
+ <para><screen>root@titan:/etc# ipkg remove iputils-ping
+Removing package iputils-ping from root...
+update-alternatives: Linking //bin/ping to busybox
+root@titan:/etc# ls -l /bin/ping
+lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 7 May 13 2006 /bin/ping -&gt; busybox</screen></para>
+
+ <para>This simple example shows that the alternatives system is taking
+ care of ensuring the symlink is pointing to the correct version of the
+ command without any special interaction from the end users.</para>
+ </section>
+
+ <section>
+ <title>The update-alternatives command</title>
+
+ <para>Available alternatives need to be registered with the alternatives
+ system. This is handled by the <command>update-alternatives</command>
+ command. The help from the command shows it's usage options:<screen>root@titan:/etc# update-alternatives --help
+update-alternatives: help:
+
+Usage: update-alternatives --install &lt;link&gt; &lt;name&gt; &lt;path&gt; &lt;priority&gt;
+ update-alternatives --remove &lt;name&gt; &lt;path&gt;
+ update-alternatives --help
+&lt;link&gt; is the link pointing to the provided path (ie. /usr/bin/foo).
+&lt;name&gt; is the name in /usr/lib/ipkg/alternatives/alternatives (ie. foo)
+&lt;path&gt; is the name referred to (ie. /usr/bin/foo-extra-spiffy)
+&lt;priority&gt; is an integer; options with higher numbers are chosen.
+</screen></para>
+
+ <para>During postinst the update-alternatives command needs to be called
+ with the install option and during postrm it needs to be called with the
+ remove option.</para>
+
+ <para>The iputils recipe actual codes this directly (rather than using the
+ class) so we can see an example of the command being called:<screen>pkg_postinst_${PN}-ping () {
+ update-alternatives --install ${base_bindir}/ping ping ping.${PN} 100
+}
+pkg_prerm_${PN}-ping () {
+ update-alternatives --remove ping ping.${PN}
+}</screen></para>
+
+ <para>In both cases the name that the alternatives are registered against,
+ <command>"ping"</command>, is passed in and the path to the iputils
+ version of the command, <command>"ping.${PN}"</command>. For the install
+ case the actual command name (where the symlink will be made from) and a
+ priority value are also supplied.</para>
+ </section>
+
+ <section>
+ <title>Priority of the alternatives</title>
+
+ <para>So why did the alternatives system prefer the iputils version of
+ ping over the busybox version? It's because of the relative priorities of
+ the available alternatives. When iputils calls update-alternatives the
+ last parameter passed is a priority:<screen> update-alternatives --install ${base_bindir}/ping ping ping.${PN} 100</screen></para>
+
+ <para>So iputils is specifying a priority of 100 and if you look at
+ busybox you'll see it specifies a priority of 50 for ping. The alternative
+ with the highest priority value is the one that update-alternatives will
+ select as the version to actual use. In this particular situation the
+ authors have selected a higher priority for iputils since it is the more
+ capable version of ping and would not normally be installed unless
+ explicitly requested.</para>
+ </section>
+
+ <section>
+ <title>Tracking of the installed alternatives</title>
+
+ <para>You can actually see which alternatives are available and what their
+ priority is on a target system. Here we have an example in which both
+ busybox and iptuils-ping packages are installed: <screen>root@titan:/etc# cat /usr/lib/ipkg/alternatives/ping
+/bin/ping
+busybox 50
+ping.iputils 100</screen>If we remove iputils-ping, then we see that
+ alternatives file is updated to reflect this: <screen>root@titan:/etc# cat /usr/lib/ipkg/alternatives/ping
+/bin/ping
+busybox 50
+root@titan:/etc#</screen></para>
+
+ <para>The file lists the command first, and then each of the available
+ alternatives and their relative priorities.</para>
+ </section>
+
+ <section>
+ <title>Using the update-alternatives class</title>
+
+ <para>Neither busybox nor iputils actually use the update-alternatives
+ class - they call the update-alternatives functions directly. They need to
+ call the command directly since they need to register multiple
+ alternatives and the class does not support this. The class can only be
+ used when you have only a single alternative to register.</para>
+
+ <para>To use the class you need to inherent update-alternatives and then
+ define the name, path, link and priority as show in the following example
+ from the jamvm recipe:</para>
+
+ <para><screen>inherit autotools update-alternatives
+
+ALTERNATIVE_NAME = "java"
+ALTERNATIVE_PATH = "${bindir}/jamvm"
+ALTERNATIVE_LINK = "${bindir}/java"
+ALTERNATIVE_PRIORITY = "10"
+</screen></para>
+
+ <para>where the variables to be specified are:</para>
+
+ <variablelist>
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>ALTERNATIVE_NAME [Required]</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>The name that the alternative is registered against and needs
+ to be the same for all alternatives registering this command.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>ALTERNATIVE_PATH [Required]</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>The path of the installed alternative. (This was iputils.ping
+ in the example used previously).</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>ALTERNATIVE_LINK [Optional]</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>The name of the actual command. This is what the symlink will
+ be called and is the actual command that the use runs. The default
+ value is: <command>"${bindir}/${ALTERNATIVE_NAME}"</command></para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>ALTERNATIVE_PRIORITY [Optional]</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>The priority of this alternative. The alternative with the
+ highest valued priority will be selected as the default. The default
+ value is: <command>"10"</command>.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+ </variablelist>
+
+ <para>The actual postinst and postrm commands that are registered by the
+ class are:<screen>update_alternatives_postinst() {
+ update-alternatives --install ${ALTERNATIVE_LINK} ${ALTERNATIVE_NAME} ${ALTERNATIVE_PATH} ${ALTERNATIVE_PRIORITY}
+}
+
+update_alternatives_postrm() {
+ update-alternatives --remove ${ALTERNATIVE_NAME} ${ALTERNATIVE_PATH}
+}</screen></para>
+ </section>
+</section> \ No newline at end of file
diff --git a/usermanual/reference/class_update-rc.d.xml b/usermanual/reference/class_update-rc.d.xml
new file mode 100644
index 0000000000..2da9b0bf86
--- /dev/null
+++ b/usermanual/reference/class_update-rc.d.xml
@@ -0,0 +1,133 @@
+<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
+<section id="update-rc-d_class" xreflabel="update-rc.d class">
+ <title>update-rc.d class</title>
+
+ <para>Services which need to be started during boot need to be registered
+ using the update-rc.d command. These services are required to have an init
+ script which is installed into <command>/etc/init.d</command> that can be
+ used to start and stop the service.</para>
+
+ <para>The following examples show a service being manually stopped and
+ started using it's init script:<screen>root@titan:/etc# /etc/init.d/syslog stop
+Stopping syslogd/klogd: stopped syslogd (pid 1551).
+stopped klogd (pid 1553).
+done
+root@titan:/etc# /etc/init.d/syslog start
+Starting syslogd/klogd: done
+root@titan:/etc#</screen>The update-rc.d class takes care of the following
+ automatically:</para>
+
+ <orderedlist>
+ <listitem>
+ <para>Registers the service with the system during postinst so it will
+ be automatically started on boot;</para>
+ </listitem>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>Stops the service during prerm so it will no longer be running
+ after being removed;</para>
+ </listitem>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>Unregisters the service during prerm so there will be no attempts
+ to start the removed service during boot;</para>
+ </listitem>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>Adds a build and run time dependency on the update-rc.d package
+ which it uses to register and unregister the services.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </orderedlist>
+
+ <para>Usage is very simple, as shown by this example from dropbear:<screen>INITSCRIPT_NAME = "dropbear"
+INITSCRIPT_PARAMS = "defaults 10"
+
+inherit autotools update-rc.d</screen></para>
+
+ <para>where the variables are:</para>
+
+ <variablelist>
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>INITSCRIPT_NAME</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>The name of the init script, which the package will have
+ installed into /etc/init.d</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>INITSCRIPT_PARAMS</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>The parameters to pass to the update-rc.d call during
+ installation. Typically this will be the work default followed by
+ either single number or a pair of numbers representing the start/stop
+ sequence number (both are set to the same if only one number is
+ supplied.)</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+ </variablelist>
+
+ <para>The help from update-rc.d shows show the required parameters:<screen>root@titan:/etc# update-rc.d -h
+usage: update-rc.d [-n] [-f] [-r &lt;root&gt;] &lt;basename&gt; remove
+ update-rc.d [-n] [-r &lt;root&gt;] [-s] &lt;basename&gt; defaults [NN | sNN kNN]
+ update-rc.d [-n] [-r &lt;root&gt;] [-s] &lt;basename&gt; start|stop NN runlvl [runlvl] [...] .
+ -n: not really
+ -f: force
+ -r: alternate root path (default is /)
+ -s: invoke start methods if appropriate to current runlevel
+root@titan:/etc#</screen>The start and stop sequence numbers need to ensure
+ that the the service is started at the appropriate time relative to other
+ services, such as waiting for any service that it depends on before starting
+ (networking for example). Unless the service is a system or security related
+ service it's better to be started as late as possible.</para>
+
+ <section>
+ <title>Multiple update-rc.d packages</title>
+
+ <para>Defining multiple init scripts within the one recipe is also
+ supported. Note that each init script must be in it's own package. The
+ following example is from the quagga recipe:<screen># Main init script starts all deamons
+# Seperate init script for watchquagga
+INITSCRIPT_PACKAGES = "${PN} ${PN}-watchquagga"
+INITSCRIPT_NAME_${PN} = "quagga"
+INITSCRIPT_PARAMS_${PN} = "defaults 15 85"
+INITSCRIPT_NAME_${PN}-watchquagga = "watchquagga"
+INITSCRIPT_PARAMS_${PN}-watchquagga = "defaults 90 10"
+
+inherit autotools update-rc.d</screen> The variables that need to be declared
+ are:</para>
+
+ <variablelist>
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>INITSCRIPT_PACKAGES</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>The names of each package which includes an init
+ script.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>INITSCRIPT_NAME_x</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>The same meaning as INITSCRIPT_NAME, but for the package x.
+ This would be repeated for each package that includes an init
+ script.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>INITSCRIPT_PARAMS_x</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>The same meaning as INITSCRIPT_PARAMS, but for the package x.
+ This would be repeated for each package that includes an init
+ script.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+ </variablelist>
+ </section>
+</section> \ No newline at end of file
diff --git a/usermanual/reference/dirs_install.xml b/usermanual/reference/dirs_install.xml
new file mode 100644
index 0000000000..3d85f2ca8d
--- /dev/null
+++ b/usermanual/reference/dirs_install.xml
@@ -0,0 +1,193 @@
+<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
+<section id="directories_installation" xreflabel="Installation directories">
+ <title>Directories: Installation variables</title>
+
+ <para>The following table provides a list of the variables that are used to
+ control the directories into which files are installed.</para>
+
+ <para>These variables can be used directly by the recipe to refer to paths
+ that will be used after the package is installed. For example, when specify
+ the location of configuration files you need to specify the location on the
+ target as show in the following example from quagga:<screen># Indicate that the default files are configuration files
+CONFFILES_${PN} = "${sysconfdir}/default/quagga"
+CONFFILES_${PN}-watchquagga = "${sysconfdir}/default/watchquagga"</screen></para>
+
+ <para>When using these variables to actually install the components of a
+ package from within a bitbake recipe they should used relative to the
+ destination directory, <emphasis role="bold">D</emphasis>. The following
+ example from the quagga recipe shows some addition files being manually
+ installed from within the recipe itself:<screen>do_install () {
+ # Install init script and default settings
+ install -m 0755 -d ${D}${sysconfdir}/default ${D}${sysconfdir}/init.d ${D}${sysconfdir}/quagga
+ install -m 0644 ${WORKDIR}/quagga.default ${D}${sysconfdir}/default/quagga</screen></para>
+
+ <informaltable>
+ <tgroup cols="3">
+ <thead>
+ <row>
+ <entry>Variable name</entry>
+
+ <entry>Definition</entry>
+
+ <entry>Typical value</entry>
+ </row>
+ </thead>
+
+ <tbody>
+ <row>
+ <entry>prefix</entry>
+
+ <entry>/usr</entry>
+
+ <entry>/usr</entry>
+ </row>
+
+ <row>
+ <entry>base_prefix</entry>
+
+ <entry align="right"><emphasis>(empty)</emphasis></entry>
+
+ <entry align="right"><emphasis>(empty)</emphasis></entry>
+ </row>
+
+ <row>
+ <entry>exec_prefix</entry>
+
+ <entry>${base_prefix}</entry>
+
+ <entry align="right"><emphasis>(empty)</emphasis></entry>
+ </row>
+
+ <row>
+ <entry>base_bindir</entry>
+
+ <entry>${base_prefix}/bin</entry>
+
+ <entry>/bin</entry>
+ </row>
+
+ <row>
+ <entry>base_sbindir</entry>
+
+ <entry>${base_prefix}/sbin</entry>
+
+ <entry>/sbin</entry>
+ </row>
+
+ <row>
+ <entry>base_libdir</entry>
+
+ <entry>${base_prefix}/lib</entry>
+
+ <entry>/lib</entry>
+ </row>
+
+ <row>
+ <entry>datadir</entry>
+
+ <entry>${prefix}/share</entry>
+
+ <entry>/usr/share</entry>
+ </row>
+
+ <row>
+ <entry>sysconfdir</entry>
+
+ <entry>/etc</entry>
+
+ <entry>/etc</entry>
+ </row>
+
+ <row>
+ <entry>localstatedir</entry>
+
+ <entry>/var</entry>
+
+ <entry>/var</entry>
+ </row>
+
+ <row>
+ <entry>infodir</entry>
+
+ <entry>${datadir}/info</entry>
+
+ <entry>/usr/share/info</entry>
+ </row>
+
+ <row>
+ <entry>mandir</entry>
+
+ <entry>${datadir}/man</entry>
+
+ <entry>/usr/share/man</entry>
+ </row>
+
+ <row>
+ <entry>docdir</entry>
+
+ <entry>${datadir}/doc</entry>
+
+ <entry>/usr/share/doc</entry>
+ </row>
+
+ <row>
+ <entry>servicedir</entry>
+
+ <entry>/srv</entry>
+
+ <entry>/srv</entry>
+ </row>
+
+ <row>
+ <entry>bindir</entry>
+
+ <entry>${exec_prefix}/bin</entry>
+
+ <entry>/usr/bin</entry>
+ </row>
+
+ <row>
+ <entry>sbindir</entry>
+
+ <entry>${exec_prefix}/sbin</entry>
+
+ <entry>/usr/sbin</entry>
+ </row>
+
+ <row>
+ <entry>libexecdir</entry>
+
+ <entry>${exec_prefix}/libexec</entry>
+
+ <entry>/usr/libexec</entry>
+ </row>
+
+ <row>
+ <entry>libdir</entry>
+
+ <entry>${exec_prefix}/lib</entry>
+
+ <entry>/usr/lib</entry>
+ </row>
+
+ <row>
+ <entry>includedir</entry>
+
+ <entry>${exec_prefix}/include</entry>
+
+ <entry>/usr/include</entry>
+ </row>
+
+ <row>
+ <entry></entry>
+
+ <entry></entry>
+
+ <entry></entry>
+ </row>
+ </tbody>
+ </tgroup>
+ </informaltable>
+
+ <para></para>
+</section> \ No newline at end of file
diff --git a/usermanual/reference/dirs_staging.xml b/usermanual/reference/dirs_staging.xml
new file mode 100644
index 0000000000..25f3685aad
--- /dev/null
+++ b/usermanual/reference/dirs_staging.xml
@@ -0,0 +1,169 @@
+<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
+<section id="directories_staging" xreflabel="Staging directories">
+ <title>Directories: Staging variables</title>
+
+ <para>The following table provides a list of the variables that are used to
+ control the directories into which files are staged.</para>
+
+ <para>Staging is used for headers, libraries and binaries that are generated
+ by packages and are to be used in the generation of other packages. For
+ example the libpcre recipe needs to make the include files and libraries for
+ the target available on the host for other applications that depend on
+ libpcre. So in addition to packaging these files up for use in the binary
+ package they are need to be installed in the staging are for use by other
+ packages.</para>
+
+ <para>There are two common situations in which you will need to directly
+ refer to the staging directories:</para>
+
+ <orderedlist>
+ <listitem>
+ <para>To specify where headers and libraries are to be found for
+ libraries that your package depends on. In some cases these will be
+ found automatically due to the default compiler settings used by OE, but
+ in other cases you will need to explicitly tell your package to look in
+ the staging area. This is more commonly needed with autoconf based
+ packages that check for the presence of a specific package during the
+ <emphasis>configure</emphasis> task.</para>
+ </listitem>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>In the <emphasis>stage</emphasis> task for libraries to specify
+ where to install the headers and libraries.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </orderedlist>
+
+ <para>The following example from libpcre shows the installation of the
+ libraries and headers from the package into the staging area. Note the use
+ of the <emphasis>oe_libinstall</emphasis> helper function for installation
+ of the libraries:<screen>do_stage () {
+ oe_libinstall -a -so libpcre ${STAGING_LIBDIR}
+ oe_libinstall -a -so libpcreposix ${STAGING_LIBDIR}
+ install -m 0644 pcre.h ${STAGING_INCDIR}/
+ install -m 0644 pcreposix.h ${STAGING_INCDIR}/
+}</screen></para>
+
+ <para>The following example from the flac recipe shows the location of the
+ ogg libraries and included before explicitly passed to the configured script
+ via EXTRA_OECONF so that it will correctly find ogg and enable support for
+ it:<screen>EXTRA_OECONF = "--disable-oggtest --disable-id3libtest \
+ --with-ogg-libraries=${STAGING_LIBDIR} \
+ --with-ogg-includes=${STAGING_INCDIR} \
+ --without-xmms-prefix \
+ --without-xmms-exec-prefix \
+ --without-libiconv-prefix \
+ --without-id3lib"</screen>The following table lists the available
+ variables for referring to the staging area:</para>
+
+ <informaltable>
+ <tgroup cols="2">
+ <colspec colnum="0" colwidth="1*" />
+
+ <colspec colnum="1" colwidth="1*" />
+
+ <thead>
+ <row>
+ <entry>Directory</entry>
+
+ <entry>Definition</entry>
+ </row>
+ </thead>
+
+ <tbody>
+ <row>
+ <entry>STAGING_DIR</entry>
+
+ <entry>${TMPDIR}/staging</entry>
+ </row>
+
+ <row>
+ <entry>STAGING_BINDIR</entry>
+
+ <entry>${STAGING_DIR}/${HOST_SYS}/bin</entry>
+ </row>
+
+ <row>
+ <entry>STAGING_BINDIR_CROSS</entry>
+
+ <entry>${STAGING_DIR}/${BUILD_SYS}/bin/${HOST_SYS}</entry>
+ </row>
+
+ <row>
+ <entry>STAGING_BINDIR_NATIVE</entry>
+
+ <entry>${STAGING_DIR}/${BUILD_SYS}/bin</entry>
+ </row>
+
+ <row>
+ <entry>STAGING_LIBDIR</entry>
+
+ <entry>${STAGING_DIR}/${HOST_SYS}/lib</entry>
+ </row>
+
+ <row>
+ <entry>STAGING_INCDIR</entry>
+
+ <entry>${STAGING_DIR}/${HOST_SYS}/include</entry>
+ </row>
+
+ <row>
+ <entry>STAGING_DATADIR</entry>
+
+ <entry>${STAGING_DIR}/${HOST_SYS}/share</entry>
+ </row>
+
+ <row>
+ <entry>STAGING_LOADER_DIR</entry>
+
+ <entry>${STAGING_DIR}/${HOST_SYS}/loader</entry>
+ </row>
+
+ <row>
+ <entry>STAGING_FIRMWARE_DIR</entry>
+
+ <entry>${STAGING_DIR}/${HOST_SYS}/firmware</entry>
+ </row>
+
+ <row>
+ <entry>STAGING_PYDIR</entry>
+
+ <entry>${STAGING_DIR}/lib/python2.4</entry>
+ </row>
+
+ <row>
+ <entry>STAGING_KERNEL_DIR</entry>
+
+ <entry>${STAGING_DIR}/${HOST_SYS}/kernel</entry>
+ </row>
+
+ <row>
+ <entry>PKG_CONFIG_PATH</entry>
+
+ <entry>${STAGING_LIBDIR}/pkgconfig</entry>
+ </row>
+
+ <row>
+ <entry>QTDIR</entry>
+
+ <entry>${STAGING_DIR}/${HOST_SYS}/qt2</entry>
+ </row>
+
+ <row>
+ <entry>QPEDIR</entry>
+
+ <entry>${STAGING_DIR}/${HOST_SYS}</entry>
+ </row>
+
+ <row>
+ <entry>OPIEDIR</entry>
+
+ <entry>${STAGING_DIR}/${HOST_SYS}</entry>
+ </row>
+ </tbody>
+ </tgroup>
+ </informaltable>
+
+ <para></para>
+
+ <para></para>
+</section> \ No newline at end of file
diff --git a/usermanual/reference/fakeroot.xml b/usermanual/reference/fakeroot.xml
new file mode 100644
index 0000000000..5eb6a48eb0
--- /dev/null
+++ b/usermanual/reference/fakeroot.xml
@@ -0,0 +1,186 @@
+<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
+<section id="fakeroot" xreflabel="fakeroot">
+ <title>fakeroot (device node handling)</title>
+
+ <para>The fakeroot program is designed to allow non-root users to perform
+ actions that would normally require root privileges as part of the package
+ generation process. It is used by the <xref linkend="rootfs_ipkg_class" />
+ for root filesystem creation and by the <xref linkend="image_class" />
+ for the creation of filesystem images. Some recipes also use fakeroot to
+ assist with parts of the package installation (usually) or building where
+ root privligeses are expected by the package.</para>
+
+ <para>In particular fakeroot deals with:</para>
+
+ <itemizedlist>
+ <listitem>
+ <para>Device nodes; and</para>
+ </listitem>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>Ownership and group (uid &amp; gid) management.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </itemizedlist>
+
+ <section>
+ <title>How fakeroot works</title>
+
+ <para>First of all we'll look at an example of how the fakeroot process
+ works when used manually.</para>
+
+ <para>If we attempt to create a device node as a normal non-root user then
+ the command will fail, telling is that we do not have permission to create
+ device nodes:<screen>~%&gt; mknod hdc b 22 0
+mknod: `hdc': Operation not permitted</screen>Yet the <xref
+ linkend="image_class" /> is able to create device nodes and include
+ them in the final images, all without the need to have root
+ privileges.</para>
+
+ <para>Let's try and create that node again, this time we'll run the
+ commands from within a fakeroot process:<screen>~%&gt; ./tmp/staging/x86_64-linux/bin/fakeroot
+~#&gt; mknod hdc b 22 0
+~#&gt; ls -l hdc
+brw------- 1 root root 22, 0 Aug 18 13:20 hdc
+~#&gt;</screen>So it looks like we have successfully managed to create a
+ device node, even though we did not have to give a password for the root
+ user. In reality this device node still doesn't exist, it just looks like
+ it exits. Fakeroot is lying to the shell process and telling it that
+ <emphasis>"yes, this file exists and these are it's
+ properties"</emphasis>. We'll talk more about how fakeroot actually works
+ in a minute.</para>
+
+ <para>In this case <command>hdc</command> is the cd-rom drive, so let's
+ try and actually mount the cd-rom:<screen>~#&gt; mkdir disk
+~#&gt; mount hdc disk
+ERROR: ld.so: object 'libfakeroot.so.0' from LD_PRELOAD cannot be preloaded: ignored.
+mount: only root can do that
+~#&gt;</screen>So even though it appears we have root permissions, and that we
+ created a device node, you see that the system gives an error about
+ libfakeroot and about not being able to run mount because we are not
+ root.</para>
+
+ <para>If we exit the fakeroot process and then look at the device node
+ this is what we see:<screen>~#&gt; exit
+~%&gt; ls -l hdc
+brw------- 1 user user 22, 0 Aug 18 13:20 hdc
+~#&gt;</screen></para>
+
+ <para>Note that it isn't a device node at all, just an empty file owned by
+ the current user!</para>
+
+ <para>So what exactly is fakeroot doing? It's using
+ <command>LD_PRELOAD</command> to load a shared library into program which
+ replaces calls into libc, such as open and stat, and then returns
+ information to make it look like certain commands succeeded without
+ actually performing those commands. So when creating a device node
+ fakeroot will:</para>
+
+ <orderedlist>
+ <listitem>
+ <para>Intercept the mknod system call and instead of creating a device
+ node it'll just create an empty file, owned by the user who run
+ fakeroot;</para>
+ </listitem>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>It remembers the fact that mknod was called by root and it
+ remembers the properties of the device node;</para>
+ </listitem>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>When a program, such as ls, calls stat on the file fakeroot
+ remembers that it was device node, owned by root, and modifies that
+ stat information to return this to ls. So ls sees a device node even
+ though one doesn't exist.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </orderedlist>
+
+ <para>When we tried to run mount we received the error <command>"ERROR:
+ ld.so: object 'libfakeroot.so.0' from LD_PRELOAD cannot be preloaded:
+ ignored."</command>. This is due to the fact that mount is an suid root
+ binary, and for security reasons <command>LD_PRELOAD</command> is disabled
+ on suid binaries.</para>
+
+ <para>There are some very important points to remember when dealing with
+ fakeroot:</para>
+
+ <orderedlist>
+ <listitem>
+ <para>All information regarding devices nodes, uid and gids will be
+ lost when fakeroot exists;</para>
+ </listitem>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>None of the device nodes, uids or gids will appear on disk.
+ However if you tar up a directory from within fakeroot (for example),
+ all of these device, uids and gids will appear correctly in the tar
+ archive;</para>
+ </listitem>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>Any suid binaries will not interact with fakeroot;</para>
+ </listitem>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>Any static binaries will not interact with fakeroot;</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </orderedlist>
+ </section>
+
+ <section>
+ <title>Root filesystem, images and fakeroot</title>
+
+ <para>Many people have been confused by the generated root filesystem not
+ containing any valid device nodes. This is in fact the expected
+ behaviour.</para>
+
+ <para>When you look at a generated root filesystem you'll notice that the
+ device nodes all appear to be incorrectly created:<screen>~%&gt; ls -l tmp/rootfs/dev | grep ttySC
+-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 0 Aug 16 13:07 ttySC0
+-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 0 Aug 16 13:07 ttySC1
+-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 0 Aug 16 13:07 ttySC2
+~%&gt;</screen>These are empty files and not device nodes at all.</para>
+
+ <para>If we look in the image files generated from that root filesystem
+ then everything is actually ok:<screen>~%&gt; tar -ztvf tmp/deploy/images/titan-titan-20060816030639.rootfs.tar.gz | grep " ./dev/ttySC"
+crw-r----- root/root 204,8 2006-08-16 13:07:12 ./dev/ttySC0
+crw-r----- root/root 204,9 2006-08-16 13:07:12 ./dev/ttySC1
+crw-r----- root/root 204,10 2006-08-16 13:07:12 ./dev/ttySC2
+~%&gt;</screen>The images are created from within the same fakeroot process as
+ the creation of the root filesystem and therefore it correctly picks up
+ all of the special files and permissions from fakeroot.</para>
+
+ <para><emphasis role="bold">NOTE: This means that you cannot use the root
+ filesystem in tmp/rootfs directly on your target device. You need to use
+ the .tar.gz image and uncompress it, as root, in order to generate a root
+ filesystem which is suitable for use directly on the target (or as an NFS
+ root).</emphasis></para>
+ </section>
+
+ <section>
+ <title>Recipes and fakeroot</title>
+
+ <para>Some applications require that you have root permissions to run
+ their installation routine, and this is another area where fakeroot can
+ help. In a recipe the method for a standard task, such as the
+ <command>do_install</command> method for the <emphasis>install</emphasis>
+ task:<screen>do_install() {
+ install -d ${D}${bindir} ${D}${sbindir} ${D}${mandir}/man8 \
+ ${D}${sysconfdir}/default \
+ ${D}${sysconfdir}/init.d \
+ ${D}${datadir}/arpwatch
+
+ oe_runmake install DESTDIR=${D}
+ oe_runmake install-man DESTDIR=${D}
+ ...</screen>can be modified to run within a fakeroot environment by
+ prefixing the method name with fakeroot:<screen><emphasis role="bold">fakeroot</emphasis> do_install() {
+ install -d ${D}${bindir} ${D}${sbindir} ${D}${mandir}/man8 \
+ ${D}${sysconfdir}/default \
+ ${D}${sysconfdir}/init.d \
+ ${D}${datadir}/arpwatch
+
+ oe_runmake install DESTDIR=${D}
+ oe_runmake install-man DESTDIR=${D}
+ ...</screen></para>
+ </section>
+</section> \ No newline at end of file
diff --git a/usermanual/reference/image_types.xml b/usermanual/reference/image_types.xml
new file mode 100644
index 0000000000..4ea174fd46
--- /dev/null
+++ b/usermanual/reference/image_types.xml
@@ -0,0 +1,385 @@
+<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
+<section id="image_types" xreflabel="image types">
+ <title>Image types</title>
+
+ <para>One of the most commonly used outputs from a build is a filesystem
+ image containing the root filesystem for the target device. There are
+ several variables which can be used to control the type of output images and
+ the settings for those images, such as endianess or compression ratios. This
+ section details the available images and the variables that effect them. See
+ the <xref linkend="image_class" /> section for details on how image
+ generation is configured.</para>
+
+ <para>The final root file system will consist of all of the files located in
+ image root filesystem directory, <command>${IMAGE_ROOTFS}</command>, which
+ is usually <command>tmp/rootfs</command> in the build area. One important
+ difference between the images and the root file system directory is that any
+ files which can only be created by privileged users, such as device nodes,
+ will not appear in the <command>${IMAGE_ROOTFS}</command> directory but they
+ will be present in any images that are generated. This is due to
+ <emphasis><xref linkend="fakeroot" /> </emphasis>system keeping track of
+ these special files and making them available when generating the image -
+ even though they do not appear in the root filesystem directory. For this
+ reason it is important to always create an actual image to use for testing,
+ even if it's just a <command>.tar</command> archive, to ensure you have the
+ correct device nodes and any other special files.</para>
+
+ <section>
+ <title>Defining images</title>
+
+ <para>Each supported image type is defined via a set of variables. Each
+ variables has the name of the image type appended to indicate the settings
+ for that particular image type. The behaviour of the built in image types
+ can be changed by modifying these variables, and new types can be created
+ by defining these variables for the new type.</para>
+
+ <para>The variables that define an image type are:</para>
+
+ <variablelist>
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>IMAGE_CMD_&lt;type&gt;</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>Specifies the actual command that is run to generate an image
+ of the specified type.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>EXTRA_IMAGECMD_&lt;type&gt;</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>Used to pass additional command line arguments to the
+ <command>IMAGE_CMD</command> without the need to redefine the entire
+ image command. This is often used to pass options such as endianess
+ and compression rations. You need to look at the
+ <command>IMAGE_CMD</command> definition to determine how these
+ options are being used.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>IMAGE_ROOTFS_SIZE_&lt;type&gt;</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>For those image types that generate a fixed size image this
+ variable is used to specify the required image size.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>IMAGE_DEPENDS_&lt;type&gt;</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>Lists the packages that the <command>IMAGE_CMD</command>
+ depends on. As an example the jffs2 filesystem creation depends on
+ <command>mkfs.jffs2</command> command which is part of the mtd
+ utilities and therefore depends on mtd-utils-native.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+ </variablelist>
+ </section>
+
+ <section>
+ <title>Available image types</title>
+
+ <para>The following image types are built in to OpenEmbedded:</para>
+
+ <variablelist>
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>jffs2</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>Creates jffs2 <emphasis>"Journaling flash file system
+ 2"</emphasis> images. This is a read/write, compressed filesystem
+ for mtd (flash) devices. It is not supported for block
+ devices.<screen>IMAGE_CMD_jffs2 = "mkfs.jffs2 \
+ -x lzo \
+ --root=${IMAGE_ROOTFS} \
+ --faketime \
+ --output=${DEPLOY_DIR_IMAGE}/${IMAGE_NAME}.rootfs.jffs2 \
+ ${EXTRA_IMAGECMD}"</screen></para>
+
+ <para>The <command>EXTRA_IMAGECMD</command> variable for jffs2
+ passed to <command>mkfs.jffs2</command> and is left empty by
+ default:<screen>EXTRA_IMAGECMD_jffs2 = ""</screen></para>
+
+ <para>This was not always empty, prior to 2007/05/02 the
+ <command>EXTRA_IMAGECMD</command> variable for jffs2 was set to
+ enable padding, to define the endianess and to specify the block
+ size:<screen><emphasis>EXTRA_IMAGECMD_jffs2 = "--pad --little-endian --eraseblock=0x40000"</emphasis></screen></para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>cramfs</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>Creates cramfs <emphasis>"Compression ROM file
+ system"</emphasis> images. This is a read only compressed filesystem
+ which is used directly by decompressing files into RAM as they are
+ accessed. Files sizes are limited to 16MB, file system size is
+ limited to 256MB, only 8-bit uids and gids are supported, no hard
+ links are supported and no time stamps are supported.<screen>IMAGE_CMD_cramfs = "mkcramfs ${IMAGE_ROOTFS} \
+ ${DEPLOY_DIR_IMAGE}/${IMAGE_NAME}.rootfs.cramfs \
+ ${EXTRA_IMAGECMD}"</screen></para>
+
+ <para>The <command>EXTRA_IMAGECMD</command> variable for cramfs is
+ passed to <command>mkcramfs</command> and is left empty by
+ default:<screen>EXTRA_IMAGECMD_cramfs = ""</screen></para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>ext2</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>Creates an <emphasis>"Extended Filesystem 2"</emphasis> image
+ file. This is the standard Linux non-journaling file system.<screen>IMAGE_CMD_ext2 = "genext2fs -b ${IMAGE_ROOTFS_SIZE} \
+ -d ${IMAGE_ROOTFS} \
+ ${DEPLOY_DIR_IMAGE}/${IMAGE_NAME}.rootfs.ext2 \
+ ${EXTRA_IMAGECMD}"</screen></para>
+
+ <para>The <command>EXTRA_IMAGECMD</command> variable for ext2 is
+ passed to <command>genext2fs</command> and is left empty by
+ default:<screen>EXTRA_IMAGECMD_ext2 = ""</screen></para>
+
+ <para>The <command>IMAGE_ROOTS_SIZE</command> variable is used to
+ specify the size of the ext2 image and is set to 64k by
+ default:<screen>IMAGE_ROOTFS_SIZE_ext2 = "65536"</screen></para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>ext3</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>Creates an <emphasis>"Extended Filesystem 3"</emphasis> image
+ file. This is the standard Linux journaling file system.<screen>IMAGE_CMD_ext3 = "genext2fs -b ${IMAGE_ROOTFS_SIZE} \
+ -d ${IMAGE_ROOTFS} \
+ ${DEPLOY_DIR_IMAGE}/${IMAGE_NAME}.rootfs.ext3 \
+ ${EXTRA_IMAGECMD}; \
+tune2fs -j ${DEPLOY_DIR_IMAGE}/tmp.gz/${IMAGE_NAME}.rootfs.ext3"</screen></para>
+
+ <para>The <command>EXTRA_IMAGECMD</command> variable for ext3 is
+ passed to <command>genext2fs</command> and is left empty by
+ default:<screen>EXTRA_IMAGECMD_ext3 = ""</screen></para>
+
+ <para>The <command>IMAGE_ROOTS_SIZE</command> variable is used to
+ specify the size of the ext3 image and is set to 64k by
+ default:<screen>IMAGE_ROOTFS_SIZE_ext3 = "65536"</screen></para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>ext2.gz</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>Creates a version of the ext2 filesystem image compressed with
+ <command>gzip</command>.</para>
+
+ <para><screen>IMAGE_CMD_ext2.gz = "rm -rf ${DEPLOY_DIR_IMAGE}/tmp.gz &amp;&amp; \
+mkdir ${DEPLOY_DIR_IMAGE}/tmp.gz; \
+genext2fs -b ${IMAGE_ROOTFS_SIZE} -d ${IMAGE_ROOTFS} \
+ ${DEPLOY_DIR_IMAGE}/tmp.gz/${IMAGE_NAME}.rootfs.ext2 \
+ ${EXTRA_IMAGECMD}; \
+gzip -f -9 ${DEPLOY_DIR_IMAGE}/tmp.gz/${IMAGE_NAME}.rootfs.ext2; \
+mv ${DEPLOY_DIR_IMAGE}/tmp.gz/${IMAGE_NAME}.rootfs.ext2.gz \
+ ${DEPLOY_DIR_IMAGE}/${IMAGE_NAME}.rootfs.ext2.gz; \
+rmdir ${DEPLOY_DIR_IMAGE}/tmp.gz"</screen></para>
+
+ <para>The <command>EXTRA_IMAGECMD</command> variable for ext2.gz is
+ passed to <command>genext2fs</command> and is left empty by
+ default:<screen>EXTRA_IMAGECMD_ext2.gz = ""</screen></para>
+
+ <para>The <command>IMAGE_ROOTS_SIZE</command> variable is used to
+ specify the size of the ext2 image and is set to 64k by
+ default:</para>
+
+ <para><screen>IMAGE_ROOTFS_SIZE_ext2.gz = "65536"</screen></para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>ext3.gz</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>Creates a version of the ext3 filesystem image compressed with
+ <command>gzip</command>.</para>
+
+ <para><screen>IMAGE_CMD_ext3.gz = "rm -rf ${DEPLOY_DIR_IMAGE}/tmp.gz &amp;&amp; \
+mkdir ${DEPLOY_DIR_IMAGE}/tmp.gz; \
+genext2fs -b ${IMAGE_ROOTFS_SIZE} -d ${IMAGE_ROOTFS} \
+ ${DEPLOY_DIR_IMAGE}/tmp.gz/${IMAGE_NAME}.rootfs.ext3 \
+ ${EXTRA_IMAGECMD}; \
+tune2fs -j ${DEPLOY_DIR_IMAGE}/tmp.gz/${IMAGE_NAME}.rootfs.ext3; \
+gzip -f -9 ${DEPLOY_DIR_IMAGE}/tmp.gz/${IMAGE_NAME}.rootfs.ext3; \
+mv ${DEPLOY_DIR_IMAGE}/tmp.gz/${IMAGE_NAME}.rootfs.ext3.gz \
+ ${DEPLOY_DIR_IMAGE}/${IMAGE_NAME}.rootfs.ext3.gz; \
+rmdir ${DEPLOY_DIR_IMAGE}/tmp.gz"</screen></para>
+
+ <para>The <command>EXTRA_IMAGECMD</command> variable for ext3.gz is
+ passed to <command>genext2fs</command> and is left empty by
+ default:<screen>EXTRA_IMAGECMD_ext3.gz = ""</screen></para>
+
+ <para>The <command>IMAGE_ROOTS_SIZE</command> variable is used to
+ specify the size of the ext2 image and is set to 64k by
+ default:</para>
+
+ <para><screen>IMAGE_ROOTFS_SIZE_ext3.gz = "65536"</screen></para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>squashfs</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>Creates a squashfs image. This is a read only compressed
+ filesystem which is used directly with files uncompressed into RAM
+ as they are accessed. Files and filesystems may be up to 2^64 bytes
+ in size, full 32-bit uids and gids are stored, it detects duplicate
+ files and stores only a single copy, all meta-data is compressed and
+ big and little endian filesystems can be mounted on any
+ platform.</para>
+
+ <para>Squashfs uses gzip as its compression method.</para>
+
+ <para><screen>IMAGE_CMD_squashfs = "mksquashfs ${IMAGE_ROOTFS} \
+ ${DEPLOY_DIR_IMAGE}/${IMAGE_NAME}.rootfs.squashfs \
+ ${EXTRA_IMAGECMD} -noappend"</screen></para>
+
+ <para>The <command>EXTRA_IMAGECMD</command> variable for squashfs is
+ passed to <command>mksquashfs</command> and is left empty by
+ default:<screen>EXTRA_IMAGECMD_squashfs = ""</screen></para>
+
+ <para>This was not always empty, prior to 2007/05/02 the
+ <command>EXTRA_IMAGECMD</command> variable for squashfs specified
+ the endianess and block size of the filesystem:<screen><emphasis>EXTRA_IMAGECMD_squashfs = "-le -b 16384"</emphasis></screen></para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>squashfs-lzma</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>Creates a squashfs image using lzma compression instead of
+ gzip which is the standard squashfs compression type. This is a read
+ only compressed filesystem which is used directly with files
+ uncompressed into RAM as they are accessed. Files and filesystems
+ may be up to 2^64 bytes in size, full 32-bit uids and gids are
+ stored, it detects duplicate files and stores only a single copy,
+ all meta-data is compressed and big and little endian filesystems
+ can be mounted on any platform.</para>
+
+ <para>Squashfs-lzma uses lzma as its compression method.</para>
+
+ <para><screen>IMAGE_CMD_squashfs-lzma = "mksquashfs-lzma ${IMAGE_ROOTFS} \
+ ${DEPLOY_DIR_IMAGE}/${IMAGE_NAME}.rootfs.squashfs \
+ ${EXTRA_IMAGECMD} -noappend"</screen></para>
+
+ <para>The <command>EXTRA_IMAGECMD</command> variable for squashfs is
+ passed to <command>mksquashfs-lzma</command> and is left empty by
+ default:<screen>EXTRA_IMAGECMD_squashfs-lzma = ""</screen></para>
+
+ <para>This was not always empty, prior to 2007/05/02 the
+ <command>EXTRA_IMAGECMD</command> variable for squashfs specified
+ the endianess and block size of the filesystem:<screen><emphasis>EXTRA_IMAGECMD_squashfs-lzma = "-le -b 16384"</emphasis></screen></para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>tar</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>Creates a .tar archive.</para>
+
+ <para><screen>IMAGE_CMD_tar = "cd ${IMAGE_ROOTFS} &amp;&amp; \
+ tar -cvf ${DEPLOY_DIR_IMAGE}/${IMAGE_NAME}.rootfs.tar ."</screen></para>
+
+ <para>The <command>EXTRA_IMAGECMD</command> variable in not
+ supported for tar images.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>tar.gz</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>Creates a <command>gzip</command> compressed .tar
+ archive.</para>
+
+ <para><screen>IMAGE_CMD_tar.gz = "cd ${IMAGE_ROOTFS} &amp;&amp; \
+ tar -zcvf ${DEPLOY_DIR_IMAGE}/${IMAGE_NAME}.rootfs.tar.gz ."</screen></para>
+
+ <para>The <command>EXTRA_IMAGECMD</command> variable in not
+ supported for .tar.gz images.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>tar.bz2</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>Creates a <command>bzip2</command> compressed .tar
+ archive.</para>
+
+ <para><screen>IMAGE_CMD_tar.bz2 = "cd ${IMAGE_ROOTFS} &amp;&amp; \
+ tar -jcvf ${DEPLOY_DIR_IMAGE}/${IMAGE_NAME}.rootfs.tar.bz2 ."</screen></para>
+
+ <para>The <command>EXTRA_IMAGECMD</command> variable in not
+ supported for tar.bz2 images.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>cpio</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>Creates a .cpio archive:<screen>IMAGE_CMD_cpio = "cd ${IMAGE_ROOTFS} &amp;&amp; \
+ (find . | cpio -o -H newc &gt;${DEPLOY_DIR_IMAGE}/${IMAGE_NAME}.rootfs.cpio)"</screen></para>
+
+ <para>The <command>EXTRA_IMAGECMD</command> variable in not
+ supported for cpio images.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>cpio.gz</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>Creates a <command>gzip</command> compressed .cpio
+ archive.<screen>IMAGE_CMD_cpio.gz = cd ${IMAGE_ROOTFS} &amp;&amp; \
+ (find . | cpio -o -H newc | gzip -c -9 &gt;${DEPLOY_DIR_IMAGE}/${IMAGE_NAME}.rootfs.cpio.gz)"</screen></para>
+
+ <para>The <command>EXTRA_IMAGECMD</command> variable in not
+ supported for cpio.gz images.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+ </variablelist>
+
+ <para>The above built in list of image types is defined in the bitbake
+ configuration file:
+ <command>org.openembedded.dev/conf/bitbake.conf</command>.</para>
+ </section>
+
+ <section>
+ <title>Custom image types</title>
+
+ <para>Custom image types can be created by defining the
+ <command>IMAGE_CMD</command> variable, and optionally the
+ <command>EXTRA_IMAGECMD</command>, <command>IMAGE_ROOTFS_SIZE</command>
+ and <command>IMAGE_DEPENDS</command> variables, for your new image
+ type.</para>
+
+ <para>An example can be found in
+ <command>conf/machine/wrt54.conf</command> where it defines a new image
+ type, <emphasis>squashfs-lzma</emphasis>, for a squashfs filesystem using
+ lzma compression instead of the standard gzip compression (squashfs-lzma
+ is now a standard type, but the example still serves to show the
+ concept):<screen>IMAGE_DEPENDS_squashfs-lzma = "squashfs-tools-native"
+IMAGE_CMD_squashfs-lzma = "mksquashfs-lzma ${IMAGE_ROOTFS} \
+ ${DEPLOY_DIR_IMAGE}/${IMAGE_NAME}.rootfs.squashfs-lzma \
+ ${EXTRA_IMAGECMD} -noappend"
+EXTRA_IMAGECMD_squashfs-lzma = "-root-owned -le"</screen></para>
+ </section>
+</section>
diff --git a/usermanual/reference/var_section.xml b/usermanual/reference/var_section.xml
new file mode 100644
index 0000000000..96b746e56c
--- /dev/null
+++ b/usermanual/reference/var_section.xml
@@ -0,0 +1,704 @@
+<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
+<section id="section_variable" xreflabel="SECTION variable">
+ <title>SECTION variable: Package category</title>
+
+ <para>Sections are a means for categorising packages into related groups to
+ enable users to find packages easier. The <command>SECTION</command>
+ variable is used to declare which section a package belongs to. The most
+ common use of the section information is in GUI based package management
+ applications.</para>
+
+ <para>The default values for the section variables are:</para>
+
+ <itemizedlist>
+ <listitem>
+ <para><command>SECTION = "base"</command></para>
+ </listitem>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para><command>SECTION_${PN}-doc = "doc"</command></para>
+ </listitem>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para><command>SECTION_${PN}-dev = "devel"</command></para>
+ </listitem>
+ </itemizedlist>
+
+ <para>Note that each package generated by a recipe can have it's own section
+ and that by default documentation and development files are seperated out to
+ their own sections.</para>
+
+ <para>The table of sections show the current usage of section information.
+ This is a recomendation only, althought it is recomended that any additions
+ or modifications be discusssed via the open embedded developer mailing list
+ first.</para>
+
+ <informaltable>
+ <tgroup cols="2">
+ <colspec colwidth="1*" />
+
+ <colspec colwidth="3*" />
+
+ <tbody>
+ <row>
+ <entry>Section</entry>
+
+ <entry>Description</entry>
+ </row>
+
+ <row>
+ <entry>admin</entry>
+
+ <entry></entry>
+ </row>
+
+ <row>
+ <entry>base</entry>
+
+ <entry>Base system files. These are applications which are expected
+ to be included as part of a base system and include things such as
+ init scripts, core utilities, standard system daemons etc.</entry>
+ </row>
+
+ <row>
+ <entry>base/shell</entry>
+
+ <entry>Shells such as bash, tcsh, ksh etc.</entry>
+ </row>
+
+ <row>
+ <entry>bootloaders</entry>
+
+ <entry>Bootloaders, which are the applications responsible for
+ loading the kernel from the appropriate location (disk, flash,
+ network, etc.) and starting it running.</entry>
+ </row>
+
+ <row>
+ <entry>console</entry>
+
+ <entry>Applications which run on the console. These require no GUI
+ related libraries or interfaces to run.</entry>
+ </row>
+
+ <row>
+ <entry>console/editors</entry>
+
+ <entry></entry>
+ </row>
+
+ <row>
+ <entry>console/games</entry>
+
+ <entry></entry>
+ </row>
+
+ <row>
+ <entry>console/multimedia</entry>
+
+ <entry></entry>
+ </row>
+
+ <row>
+ <entry>console/network</entry>
+
+ <entry></entry>
+ </row>
+
+ <row>
+ <entry>console/scientific</entry>
+
+ <entry></entry>
+ </row>
+
+ <row>
+ <entry>console/telephony</entry>
+
+ <entry></entry>
+ </row>
+
+ <row>
+ <entry>console/tools</entry>
+
+ <entry></entry>
+ </row>
+
+ <row>
+ <entry>console/utils</entry>
+
+ <entry></entry>
+ </row>
+
+ <row>
+ <entry>devel</entry>
+
+ <entry>Development related files. These include compilers,
+ libraries, headers, debuggers etc.</entry>
+ </row>
+
+ <row>
+ <entry>devel/libs</entry>
+
+ <entry></entry>
+ </row>
+
+ <row>
+ <entry>devel/perl</entry>
+
+ <entry></entry>
+ </row>
+
+ <row>
+ <entry>devel/python</entry>
+
+ <entry></entry>
+ </row>
+
+ <row>
+ <entry>devel/rexx</entry>
+
+ <entry></entry>
+ </row>
+
+ <row>
+ <entry>devel/ruby</entry>
+
+ <entry></entry>
+ </row>
+
+ <row>
+ <entry>devel/scheme</entry>
+
+ <entry></entry>
+ </row>
+
+ <row>
+ <entry>devel/tcltk</entry>
+
+ <entry></entry>
+ </row>
+
+ <row>
+ <entry>doc</entry>
+
+ <entry>Documentation, including man pages and sample configuration
+ files.</entry>
+ </row>
+
+ <row>
+ <entry>e/apps</entry>
+
+ <entry></entry>
+ </row>
+
+ <row>
+ <entry>e/libs</entry>
+
+ <entry></entry>
+ </row>
+
+ <row>
+ <entry>e/utils</entry>
+
+ <entry></entry>
+ </row>
+
+ <row>
+ <entry>fonts</entry>
+
+ <entry>Fonts that are not X11 or OPIE specific such as truetype
+ fonts.</entry>
+ </row>
+
+ <row>
+ <entry>games</entry>
+
+ <entry>Games.</entry>
+ </row>
+
+ <row>
+ <entry>games/arcade</entry>
+
+ <entry></entry>
+ </row>
+
+ <row>
+ <entry>gpe</entry>
+
+ <entry>GPE GUI enviroment. For the anything that provides or uses
+ the GPE UI. Note that development and documentation related files
+ should be in the appropriate devel and doc section, not under
+ GPE.</entry>
+ </row>
+
+ <row>
+ <entry>gpe/applications</entry>
+
+ <entry></entry>
+ </row>
+
+ <row>
+ <entry>gpe/base</entry>
+
+ <entry></entry>
+ </row>
+
+ <row>
+ <entry>gpe/games</entry>
+
+ <entry></entry>
+ </row>
+
+ <row>
+ <entry>gpe/libs</entry>
+
+ <entry>GPE runtime libraries. This does not include libraries used
+ for development - they should be included in the appropriate devel
+ section.</entry>
+ </row>
+
+ <row>
+ <entry>gpe/multimedia</entry>
+
+ <entry></entry>
+ </row>
+
+ <row>
+ <entry>inputmethods</entry>
+
+ <entry>inputmethods that are neither libs, nor solely for GPE/Opie or the console</entry>
+ </row>
+
+ <row>
+ <entry>interpreters</entry>
+
+ <entry></entry>
+ </row>
+
+ <row>
+ <entry>kde</entry>
+
+ <entry>KDE related applications.</entry>
+ </row>
+
+ <row>
+ <entry>kde/devel</entry>
+
+ <entry></entry>
+ </row>
+
+ <row>
+ <entry>kernel</entry>
+
+ <entry>Linux kernels.</entry>
+ </row>
+
+ <row>
+ <entry>kernel/modules</entry>
+
+ <entry>Linux kernel modules. This include out-of-tree kernel
+ modules.</entry>
+ </row>
+
+ <row>
+ <entry>kernel/userland</entry>
+
+ <entry></entry>
+ </row>
+
+ <row>
+ <entry>libs</entry>
+
+ <entry>Runtime libraries. This does not include libraries used for
+ development - they should be included in the appropriate devel
+ section.</entry>
+ </row>
+
+ <row>
+ <entry>libs/inputmethods</entry>
+
+ <entry></entry>
+ </row>
+
+ <row>
+ <entry>libs/multimedia</entry>
+
+ <entry></entry>
+ </row>
+
+ <row>
+ <entry>libs/network</entry>
+
+ <entry></entry>
+ </row>
+
+ <row>
+ <entry>network</entry>
+
+ <entry></entry>
+ </row>
+
+ <row>
+ <entry>network/cms</entry>
+
+ <entry></entry>
+ </row>
+
+ <row>
+ <entry>network/misc</entry>
+
+ <entry></entry>
+ </row>
+
+ <row>
+ <entry>openmoko</entry>
+
+ <entry>Anything related to openmoko.org</entry>
+ </row>
+
+ <row>
+ <entry>openmoko/applications</entry>
+
+ <entry></entry>
+ </row>
+
+ <row>
+ <entry>openmoko/base</entry>
+
+ <entry></entry>
+ </row>
+
+ <row>
+ <entry>openmoko/examples</entry>
+
+ <entry></entry>
+ </row>
+
+ <row>
+ <entry>openmoko/libs</entry>
+
+ <entry></entry>
+ </row>
+
+ <row>
+ <entry>openmoko/pim</entry>
+
+ <entry></entry>
+ </row>
+
+ <row>
+ <entry>openmoko/tools</entry>
+
+ <entry></entry>
+ </row>
+
+ <row>
+ <entry>opie</entry>
+
+ <entry>OPIE GUI enviroment. For the anything that provides or uses
+ the OPIE UI. Note that development and documentation related files
+ should be in the appropriate devel and doc section, not under
+ OPIE.</entry>
+ </row>
+
+ <row>
+ <entry>opie/applets</entry>
+
+ <entry></entry>
+ </row>
+
+ <row>
+ <entry>opie/applications</entry>
+
+ <entry></entry>
+ </row>
+
+ <row>
+ <entry>opie/base</entry>
+
+ <entry></entry>
+ </row>
+
+ <row>
+ <entry>opie/codecs</entry>
+
+ <entry></entry>
+ </row>
+
+ <row>
+ <entry>opie/datebook</entry>
+
+ <entry></entry>
+ </row>
+
+ <row>
+ <entry>opie/decorations</entry>
+
+ <entry></entry>
+ </row>
+
+ <row>
+ <entry>opie/fontfactories</entry>
+
+ <entry></entry>
+ </row>
+
+ <row>
+ <entry>opie/fonts</entry>
+
+ <entry>OPIE specific fonts. General fonts, such as truetype fonts,
+ should be in the fonts section.</entry>
+ </row>
+
+ <row>
+ <entry>opie/games</entry>
+
+ <entry></entry>
+ </row>
+
+ <row>
+ <entry>opie/help</entry>
+
+ <entry></entry>
+ </row>
+
+ <row>
+ <entry>opie/inputmethods</entry>
+
+ <entry></entry>
+ </row>
+
+ <row>
+ <entry>opie/libs</entry>
+
+ <entry>OPIE runtime libraries. This does not include libraries used
+ for development - they should be included in the appropriate devel
+ section.</entry>
+ </row>
+
+ <row>
+ <entry>opie/multimedia</entry>
+
+ <entry></entry>
+ </row>
+
+ <row>
+ <entry>opie/network</entry>
+
+ <entry></entry>
+ </row>
+
+ <row>
+ <entry>opie/pim</entry>
+
+ <entry></entry>
+ </row>
+
+ <row>
+ <entry>opie/security</entry>
+
+ <entry></entry>
+ </row>
+
+ <row>
+ <entry>opie/settings</entry>
+
+ <entry></entry>
+ </row>
+
+ <row>
+ <entry>opie/shell</entry>
+
+ <entry></entry>
+ </row>
+
+ <row>
+ <entry>opie/styles</entry>
+
+ <entry></entry>
+ </row>
+
+ <row>
+ <entry>opie/today</entry>
+
+ <entry></entry>
+ </row>
+
+ <row>
+ <entry>utils</entry>
+
+ <entry></entry>
+ </row>
+
+ <row>
+ <entry>x11</entry>
+
+ <entry>X11 GUI platform. For anything that provides or uses the X11
+ UI and is not GPE. Note that development and documentation related
+ files should be in the appropriate devel and doc section, not under
+ X11.</entry>
+ </row>
+
+ <row>
+ <entry>x11/applications</entry>
+
+ <entry>General applications.</entry>
+ </row>
+
+ <row>
+ <entry>x11/base</entry>
+
+ <entry>Core X11 applications.</entry>
+ </row>
+
+ <row>
+ <entry>x11/data</entry>
+
+ <entry></entry>
+ </row>
+
+ <row>
+ <entry>x11/fonts</entry>
+
+ <entry>X11 specific fonts. General fonts, such as truetype fonts,
+ should be in the fonts section.</entry>
+ </row>
+
+ <row>
+ <entry>x11/games</entry>
+
+ <entry>Games.</entry>
+ </row>
+
+ <row>
+ <entry>x11/gnome</entry>
+
+ <entry>Core gnome applications.</entry>
+ </row>
+
+ <row>
+ <entry>x11/gnome/libs</entry>
+
+ <entry>Gnome runtime libraries. This does not include libraries used
+ for development - they should be included in the appropriate devel
+ section.</entry>
+ </row>
+
+ <row>
+ <entry>x11/graphics</entry>
+
+ <entry>Applications which manipulate, display, edit, print etc.
+ images, photos, diagrams etc.</entry>
+ </row>
+
+ <row>
+ <entry>x11/libs</entry>
+
+ <entry>X11 runtime libraries. This does not include libraries used
+ for development - they should be included in the appropriate devel
+ section.</entry>
+ </row>
+
+ <row>
+ <entry>x11/multimedia</entry>
+
+ <entry>Multimedia applications.</entry>
+ </row>
+
+ <row>
+ <entry>x11/network</entry>
+
+ <entry></entry>
+ </row>
+
+ <row>
+ <entry>x11/office</entry>
+
+ <entry>Office and productivity applications.</entry>
+ </row>
+
+ <row>
+ <entry>x11/scientific</entry>
+
+ <entry>Scientific applications.</entry>
+ </row>
+
+ <row>
+ <entry>x11/utils</entry>
+
+ <entry></entry>
+ </row>
+
+ <row>
+ <entry>x11/wm</entry>
+
+ <entry>Window managers.</entry>
+ </row>
+ </tbody>
+ </tgroup>
+ </informaltable>
+
+ <para>The following tables lists some sections which may be in existing
+ recipes. These should not be used in new recipes and should be renamed when
+ updated existing recipes that use the specified sections.</para>
+
+ <informaltable>
+ <tgroup cols="2">
+ <colspec colwidth="1*" />
+
+ <colspec colwidth="3*" />
+
+ <tbody>
+ <row>
+ <entry>Section</entry>
+
+ <entry>Action</entry>
+ </row>
+
+ <row>
+ <entry>apps</entry>
+
+ <entry>Replace with appropriate section</entry>
+ </row>
+
+ <row>
+ <entry>gui</entry>
+
+ <entry>Replace with appropriate section</entry>
+ </row>
+
+ <row>
+ <entry>media-gfx</entry>
+
+ <entry>Replace with appropriate section</entry>
+ </row>
+
+ <row>
+ <entry>multimedia</entry>
+
+ <entry>Replace with appropriate section</entry>
+ </row>
+
+ <row>
+ <entry>net</entry>
+
+ <entry>Replace with network</entry>
+ </row>
+
+ <row>
+ <entry>unknown</entry>
+
+ <entry>Replace with appropriate section</entry>
+ </row>
+
+ <row>
+ <entry>x11-misc</entry>
+
+ <entry>Replace with appropriate section</entry>
+ </row>
+ </tbody>
+ </tgroup>
+ </informaltable>
+
+ <para></para>
+</section>
diff --git a/usermanual/reference/var_src_uri.xml b/usermanual/reference/var_src_uri.xml
new file mode 100644
index 0000000000..a9a2985a70
--- /dev/null
+++ b/usermanual/reference/var_src_uri.xml
@@ -0,0 +1,692 @@
+<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
+<section id="src_uri_variable" xreflabel="SRC_URI variable">
+ <title>SRC_URI variable: Source code and patches</title>
+
+ <para>All recipies need to contain a definition of
+ <command>SRC_URI</command>. It determines what files and source code is
+ needed and where that source code should be obtained from. This includes
+ patches to be applied and basic files that are shipped as part of the
+ meta-data for the package.</para>
+
+ <para>A typical <command>SRC_URI</command> contains a list of URL's, patches
+ and files as shown in this example from quagga:<screen>SRC_URI = "http://www.quagga.net/download/quagga-${PV}.tar.gz \
+ file://ospfd-no-opaque-lsa-fix.patch;patch=1 \
+ file://fix-for-lib-inpath.patch;patch=1 \
+ file://quagga.init \
+ file://quagga.default \
+ file://watchquagga.init \
+ file://watchquagga.default"</screen>All source code and files will
+ be placed into the work directory, <command>${WORKDIR}</command>, for the
+ package. All patches will be placed into a <command>patches</command>
+ subdirectory of the package source directory, <command>${S}</command>, and
+ then automatically applied to the source.</para>
+
+ <para>Before downloading from a remote URI a check will be made to see if
+ what is to be retrieved is already present in the download source directory,
+ <command>${DL_DIR}</command>, along with an associated md5 sum. If the
+ source is present in the downloaded sources directory and the md5 sum
+ matches that listed in the associated md5 sum file, then that version will
+ be used in preference to retrieving a new version . Any source that is
+ retrieved from a remote URI will be stored in the download source directory
+ and an appropriate md5 sum generated and stored alongside it.</para>
+
+ <para>Each URI supports a set of additional options. These options are
+ tag/value pairs of the form <command>"a=b"</command> and are semi-colon
+ separated from each other and from the URI. The follow examples shows two
+ options being included, the patch and pnum options:<screen>file://ospfd-no-opaque-lsa-fix.patch;patch=1;pnum=2</screen>The
+ supported methods for fetching source and files are:</para>
+
+ <variablelist>
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>http, https, ftps</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>Used to download files and source code via the specified URL.
+ These are fetched from the specified location using wget.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>file</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>Used for files that are included locally in the meta-data. These
+ may be plain files, such as init scripts to be added to the final
+ package, or they may be patch files to be applied to other
+ source.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>cvs</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>Used to download from a CVS repository.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>svn</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>Used to download from a subversion repository.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>git</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>Used to download from a git repository.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+ </variablelist>
+
+ <para>When source code is specified as a part of <command>SRC_URI</command>
+ it is unpacked into the work directory, <command>${WORKDIR}</command>. The
+ unpacker recognises several archive and compression types and for these it
+ will decompress any compressed files and extract all of the files from
+ archives into the work directory. The supported types are:</para>
+
+ <variablelist>
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>.tar</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>Tar archives which will be extracted with <command>"tar x
+ --no-same-owner -f &lt;srcfile&gt;"</command>.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>.tgz, .tar.gz, tar.Z</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>Gzip compressed tar archives which will be extracted with
+ <command>"tar xz --no-same-owner -f &lt;srcfile&gt;"</command>.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>.tbz, .tar.bz2</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>Bzip2 compressed tar archives which will be extracted with
+ <command>"bzip2 -dc &lt;srcfile&gt; | tar x --no-same-owner -f
+ -"</command>.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>.gz, .Z, .z</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>Gzip compressed files which will be decompressed with
+ <command>"gzip -dc &lt;srcfile&gt; &gt;
+ &lt;dstfile&gt;"</command>.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>.bz2</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>Bzip2 compressed files which will be decompressed with
+ <command>"bzip2 -dc &lt;srcfile&gt; &gt;
+ &lt;dstfile&gt;"</command>.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>.zip</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>Zip archives which will be extracted with <command>"unzip -q
+ &lt;srcfile&gt;"</command>.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+ </variablelist>
+
+ <para>The downloading of the source files occurs in the
+ <emphasis>fetch</emphasis> task, the unpacking and copying to the work
+ directory occurs in the <emphasis>unpack</emphasis> task and the applying of
+ patches occurs in the <emphasis>patch</emphasis> task.</para>
+
+ <section>
+ <title>http/https/ftp (wget)</title>
+
+ <para>The wget fetcher handles http, https and ftp URLs.<screen>http://www.quagga.net/download/quagga-${PV}.tar.gz</screen></para>
+
+ <para>Supported options:</para>
+
+ <variablelist>
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>md5sum</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>If an md5sum is provided then the downloaded files will only
+ be considered valid if the md5sum of the downloaded file matches the
+ md5sum option provided.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+ </variablelist>
+
+ <para>Related variables:</para>
+
+ <variablelist>
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>MIRRORS</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>Mirrors define alternative locations to download source files
+ from. See the mirror section below for more information.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>DL_DIR</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>The downloaded files will be placed in this directory with the
+ name exactly as supplied via the URI.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+ </variablelist>
+ </section>
+
+ <section>
+ <title>file: for patches and additional files</title>
+
+ <para>The file URI's are used to copy files, included as part of the
+ package meta data, into the work directory to be used when building the
+ package. Typical use of the file URI's is to specify patches that be
+ applied to the source and to provide additional files, such as init
+ scripts, to be included in the final package.</para>
+
+ <para>The following example shows the specification of a patch
+ file:<screen>file://ospfd-no-opaque-lsa-fix.patch;patch=1</screen></para>
+
+ <para>Patch files are be copied to the patches subdirectory of the source
+ directory, <command>${S}/patches</command>, and then applied from the
+ source directory. The patches are searched for along the path specified
+ via the file path variable, <command>${FILESPATH},</command> and if not
+ found the directory specified by the file directory variable,
+ <command>${FILEDIR}</command>, is also checked.</para>
+
+ <para>The following example shows the specification of a non-patch file.
+ In this case it's an init script:<screen>file://quagga.init</screen>Non-patch
+ files are copied to the work directory, <command>${WORKDIR}</command>. You
+ can access these files from within a recipe by referring to them relative
+ to the work directory. The following example, from the quagga recipe,
+ shows the above init script being included in the package by copying it
+ during the <emphasis>install</emphasis> task:<screen>do_install () {
+ # Install init script and default settings
+ install -m 0755 -d ${D}${sysconfdir}/default ${D}${sysconfdir}/init.d ${D}${sysconfdir}/quagga
+ install -m 0644 <emphasis role="bold">${WORKDIR}/quagga.init</emphasis> ${D}${sysconfdir}/init.d/quagga
+...</screen></para>
+
+ <para>Supported options:</para>
+
+ <variablelist>
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>patch</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>Used as <command>"patch=1"</command> to define this file as a
+ patch file. Patch files will be copied to
+ <command>${S}/patches</command> and then applied to source from
+ within the source directory, <command>${S}</command>.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>pnum</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>By default patches are applied with the <command>"-p
+ 1"</command> parameter, which strips off the first directory of the
+ pathname in the patches. This option is used to explicitly control
+ the value passed to <command>"-p"</command>. The most typical use is
+ when the patches are relative to the source directory already and
+ need to be applied using <command>"-p 0"</command>, in which case
+ the <command>"pnum=0"</command> option is supplied.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+ </variablelist>
+ </section>
+
+ <section>
+ <title>cvs</title>
+
+ <para>The cvs fetcher is used to retrieve files from a CVS repository.
+ <screen> cvs://anonymous@cvs.sourceforge.net/cvsroot/linuxsh;module=linux;date=20051111</screen>A
+ cvs URI will retrieve the source from a cvs repository. Note that use of
+ the <emphasis>date=</emphasis> to specify a checkout for specified date.
+ It is preferable to use either a <emphasis>date=</emphasis> or a
+ <emphasis>tag=</emphasis> option to select a specific date and/or tag from
+ cvs rather than leave the checkout floating at the head revision.</para>
+
+ <para>Supported options:</para>
+
+ <variablelist>
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>module</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>The name of a module to retrieve. This is a required parameter
+ and there is no default value.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>tag</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>The name of a cvs tag to retrieve. Releases are often tagged
+ with a specific name to allow easy access. Either a tag or a date
+ can be specified, but not both.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>date</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>The date to retrieve. This requests that files as of the
+ specified date, rather then the current code or a tagged release. If
+ no date or tag options are specified, then the date is set to the
+ current date. The date is of any form accepted by cvs with the most
+ common format being <command>"YYYYMMDD"</command>.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>method</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>The method used to access the repository. Common options are
+ <command>"pserver"</command> and <command>"ext"</command> (for cvs
+ over rsh or ssh). The default is
+ <command>"pserver"</command>.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>rsh</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>The rsh command to use with the <command>"ext"</command>
+ method. Common options are <command>"rsh"</command> or
+ <command>"ssh"</command>. The default is
+ <command>"rsh"</command>.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+ </variablelist>
+
+ <para>Related variables:<variablelist>
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>CVS_TARBALL_STASH</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>Used to specifies a location to search for pre-generated tar
+ archives to use instead of accessing cvs directly.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>CVSDIR</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>The directory in which the cvs checkouts will be performed.
+ The default is <command>${DL_DIR}/cvs</command>.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>DL_DIR</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>A compressed tar archive of the retrieved files will be
+ placed in this directory. The archive name will be of the form:
+ <command>"&lt;module&gt;_&lt;host&gt;_&lt;tag&gt;_&lt;date&gt;.tar.gz"</command>.
+ Path separators in <command>module</command> will be replaced with
+ full stops.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+ </variablelist></para>
+ </section>
+
+ <section>
+ <title>svn</title>
+
+ <para>The svn fetcher is used to retrieve files from a subversion
+ repository.</para>
+
+ <para><screen> svn://svn.xiph.org/trunk;module=Tremor;rev=4573;proto=http</screen></para>
+
+ <para>Supported options:</para>
+
+ <variablelist>
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>module</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>The name of a module to retrieve. This is a required parameter
+ and there is no default value.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>rev</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>The revision to retrieve. Revisions in subversion are integer
+ values.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>proto</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>The method to use to access the repository. Common options are
+ <command>"svn"</command>, <command>"svn+ssh"</command>,
+ <command>"http"</command> and <command>"https"</command>. The
+ default is <command>"svn"</command>.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>rsh</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>The rsh command to use with using the
+ <command>"svn+ssh"</command> method. Common options are
+ <command>"rsh"</command> or <command>"ssh"</command>. The default is
+ <command>"ssh"</command>.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+ </variablelist>
+
+ <para>Related variables:<variablelist>
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>SVNDIR</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>The directory in which the svn checkouts will be performed..
+ The default is <command>${DL_DIR}/svn</command>.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>DL_DIR</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>A compressed tar archive of the retrieved files will be
+ placed in this directory. The archive name will be of the form:
+ <command>"&lt;module&gt;_&lt;host&gt;_&lt;path&gt;_&lt;revn&gt;_&lt;date&gt;.tar.gz"</command>.
+ Path separators in <command>path</command> and
+ <command>module</command> will be replaced with full stops.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+ </variablelist></para>
+ </section>
+
+ <section>
+ <title>git</title>
+
+ <para>The git fetcher is used to retrieve files from a git repository.
+ <screen> SRC_URI = "git://www.denx.de/git/u-boot.git;protocol=git;tag=${TAG}"</screen></para>
+
+ <para>Supported options:</para>
+
+ <variablelist>
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>tag</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>The tag to retrieve. The default is
+ <command>"master"</command>.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>protocol</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>The method to use to access the repository. Common options are
+ <command>"git"</command> and <command>"rsync"</command>. The default
+ is <command>"rsync"</command>.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+ </variablelist>
+
+ <para>Related variables</para>
+
+ <para><variablelist>
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>GITDIR</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>The directory in which the git checkouts will be performed.
+ The default is <command>${DL_DIR}/git</command>.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>DL_DIR</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>A compressed tar archive of the retrieved files will be
+ placed in this directory. The archive name will be of the form:
+ <command>"git_&lt;host&gt;&lt;mpath&gt;_&lt;tag&gt;.tar.gz"</command>.
+ Path separators in <command>host</command> will be replaced with
+ full stops.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+ </variablelist></para>
+ </section>
+
+ <section>
+ <title>Mirrors</title>
+
+ <para>The support for mirror sites enables spreading the load over sites
+ and allows for downloads to occur even when one of the mirror sites are
+ unavailable.</para>
+
+ <para>Default mirrors, along with their primary URL, include:</para>
+
+ <variablelist>
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>GNU_MIRROR</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>ftp://ftp.gnu.org/gnu</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>DEBIAN_MIRROR</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>ftp://ftp.debian.org/debian/pool</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>SOURCEFORGE_MIRROR</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>http://heanet.dl.sourceforge.net/sourceforge</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>GPE_MIRROR</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>http://handhelds.org/pub/projects/gpe/source</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>XLIBS_MIRROR</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>http://xlibs.freedesktop.org/release</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>XORG_MIRROR</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>http://xorg.freedesktop.org/releases</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>GNOME_MIRROR</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>http://ftp.gnome.org/pub/GNOME/sources</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>FREEBSD_MIRROR</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>ftp://ftp.freebsd.org/pub/FreeBSD</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>GENTOO_MIRROR</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>http://distro.ibiblio.org/pub/linux/distributions/gentoo/distfiles</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>APACHE_MIRROR</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>http://www.apache.org/dist</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+ </variablelist>
+
+ <para>When creating new recipes this mirrors should be used when you wish
+ to use one of the above sites by referring to the name of the mirror in
+ the URI, as show in this example from flex:<screen>SRC_URI = "${SOURCEFORGE_MIRROR}/lex/flex-2.5.31.tar.bz2</screen></para>
+
+ <para>You can manually define your mirrors if you wish to force the use of
+ a specific mirror by exporting the appropriate mirrors in
+ <command>local.conf</command> with them set to the local mirror:<screen>export GNU_MIRROR = "http://www.planetmirror.com/pub/gnu"
+export DEBIAN_MIRROR = "http://mirror.optusnet.com.au/debian/pool"
+export SOURCEFORGE_MIRROR = "http://optusnet.dl.sourceforge.net/sourceforge"</screen></para>
+
+ <para>Mirrors can be extended in individual recipes via the use of
+ <command>MIRRORS_prepend</command> or <command>MIRRORS_append</command>.
+ Each entry in the list contains the mirror name on the left-hand side and
+ the URI of the mirror on the right-hand side. The following example from
+ libffi shows the addition of two URI for the
+ <command>"${GNU_MIRROR}/gcc/"</command> URI:<screen>MIRRORS_prepend () {
+ ${GNU_MIRROR}/gcc/ http://gcc.get-software.com/releases/
+ ${GNU_MIRROR}/gcc/ http://mirrors.rcn.net/pub/sourceware/gcc/releases/
+}</screen></para>
+ </section>
+
+ <section>
+ <title>Manipulating SRC_URI</title>
+
+ <para>Sometimes it is desirable to only include patches for a specific
+ architecture and/or to include different files based on the architecture.
+ This can be done via the <command>SRC_URI_append</command> and/or
+ <command>SRC_URI_prepend</command> methods for adding additional URI's
+ based on the architecture or machine name.</para>
+
+ <para>In this example from glibc, the patch creates a configuration file
+ for glibc, which should only be used or the sh4 architecture. Therefore
+ this patch is appended to the <command>SRC_URI</command>, but only for the
+ sh4 architecture. For other architectures it is ignored:<screen># Build fails on sh4 unless no-z-defs is defined
+SRC_URI_append_sh4 = " file://no-z-defs.patch;patch=1"</screen></para>
+ </section>
+
+ <section>
+ <title>Source distribution (src_distribute_local)</title>
+
+ <para>In order to obtain a set of source files for a build you can use the
+ <emphasis>src_distribute_local</emphasis> class. This will result in all
+ the files that were actually used during a build being made available in a
+ seperate directory and therefore they can be distributed with the
+ binaries.</para>
+
+ <para>Enabling this option is as simple as activating the functionality by
+ including the required class in one of your configuration files:<screen>SRC_DIST_LOCAL = "copy"
+INHERIT += "src_distribute_local"</screen></para>
+
+ <para>Now during a build each recipe which has a LICENSE that mandates
+ source availability, like the GPL, will be placed into the source
+ distribution directory, <command>${SRC_DISTRIBUTEDIR}</command>, after
+ building.</para>
+
+ <para>There are some options available to effect the option</para>
+
+ <variablelist>
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>SRC_DIST_LOCAL</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>Specifies if the source files should be copied, symlinked or
+ moved and symlinked back. The default is
+ <command>"move+symlink"</command>.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>SRC_DISTRIBUTEDIR</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>Specifies the source distribution directory - this is why the
+ source files that was used for the build are placed. The default is
+ <command>"${DEPLOY_DIR}/sources"</command>.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+ </variablelist>
+
+ <para>The valid values for <command>SRC_DIST_LOCAL</command> are:</para>
+
+ <variablelist>
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>copy</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>Copies the files to the downloaded sources directory into the
+ distribution directory.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>symlink</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>Symlinks the files from the downloaded sources directory into
+ the distribution directory.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>move+symlink</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>Moves the files from the downloaded sources directory into the
+ distribution directory. Then creates a symlink in the download
+ sources directory to the moved files.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+ </variablelist>
+ </section>
+</section> \ No newline at end of file
diff --git a/usermanual/usermanual.xml b/usermanual/usermanual.xml
index 3d9aed941f..d7d5f13265 100644
--- a/usermanual/usermanual.xml
+++ b/usermanual/usermanual.xml
@@ -1,579 +1,120 @@
-<?xml version='1.0' encoding='utf-8'?>
+<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<!--
ex:ts=4:sw=4:sts=4:et
-*- tab-width: 4; c-basic-offset: 4; indent-tabs-mode: nil -*-
-->
<!DOCTYPE book PUBLIC "-//OASIS//DTD DocBook XML V4.2//EN"
- "http://www.oasis-open.org/docbook/xml/4.2/docbookx.dtd">
+"http://www.oasis-open.org/docbook/xml/4.2/docbookx.dtd" [
+<!ENTITY chapter-introduction SYSTEM "chapters/introduction.xml">
+<!ENTITY chapter-metadata SYSTEM "chapters/metadata.xml">
+<!ENTITY chapter-gettingoe SYSTEM "chapters/getting_oe.xml">
+<!ENTITY chapter-features SYSTEM "chapters/features.xml">
+<!ENTITY chapter-commonusecases SYSTEM "chapters/common_use_cases.xml">
+<!ENTITY chapter-comparing SYSTEM "chapters/comparing.xml">
+<!ENTITY chapter-usage SYSTEM "chapters/usage.xml">
+<!ENTITY chapter-recipes SYSTEM "chapters/recipes.xml">
+<!ENTITY class-autotools SYSTEM "reference/class_autotools.xml">
+<!ENTITY class-binconfig SYSTEM "reference/class_binconfig.xml">
+<!ENTITY dirs-install SYSTEM "reference/dirs_install.xml">
+<!ENTITY dirs-staging SYSTEM "reference/dirs_staging.xml">
+<!ENTITY class-distutils SYSTEM "reference/class_distutils.xml">
+<!ENTITY fakeroot SYSTEM "reference/fakeroot.xml">
+<!ENTITY class-image SYSTEM "reference/class_image.xml">
+<!ENTITY image-types SYSTEM "reference/image_types.xml">
+<!ENTITY class-pkgconfig SYSTEM "reference/class_pkgconfig.xml">
+<!ENTITY class-rootfs_ipkg SYSTEM "reference/class_rootfs_ipkg.xml">
+<!ENTITY var-section SYSTEM "reference/var_section.xml">
+<!ENTITY class-siteinfo SYSTEM "reference/class_siteinfo.xml">
+<!ENTITY var-src-uri SYSTEM "reference/var_src_uri.xml">
+<!ENTITY class-update-alternatives SYSTEM "reference/class_update-alternatives.xml">
+<!ENTITY class-update-rcd SYSTEM "reference/class_update-rc.d.xml">
+]>
<book>
- <bookinfo>
- <title>OpenEmbedded User Manual</title>
- <authorgroup>
- <corpauthor>OpenEmbedded Team</corpauthor>
- </authorgroup>
- <copyright>
- <year>2006</year>
- <holder>Holger Hans Peter Freyther</holder>
- <holder>Koen Kooi</holder>
- <holder>Detlef Vollmann</holder>
- </copyright>
-
- <legalnotice>
- <para>This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution License. To view a copy of this license, visit <ulink url="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/">http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/</ulink> or send a letter to Creative Commons, 559 Nathan Abbott Way, Stanford, California 94305, USA.</para>
- </legalnotice>
- </bookinfo>
-
-
- <chapter>
- <title>Introduction</title>
- <section>
- <title>Overview</title>
- <para> Like any build tool (make, ant, jam), the OpenEmbedded build tool BitBake controls how to build things and the build dependencies. But unlike single project tools like <command>make</command> it is not based on one makefile or a closed set of inter-dependent makefiles, but collects and manages an open set of largely independent build descriptions (package recipes) and builds them in proper order. </para>
- <para>To be more precise:<ulink url="http://www.openembedded.org"><application>OpenEmbedded</application></ulink> is a set of metadata used to cross-compile, package and install software packages. <application>OpenEmbedded</application> is being used to build and maintain a number of embedded Linux distributions, including OpenZaurus, Angström, Familiar and SlugOS.</para>
- <para>The primary use-case of <application>OpenEmbedded</application> are:
- <itemizedlist>
- <listitem><para>Handle cross-compilation.</para></listitem>
- <listitem><para>Handle inter-package dependencies</para></listitem>
- <listitem><para>Must be able to emit packages (tar, rpm, ipk)</para></listitem>
- <listitem><para>Must be able to create images and feeds from packages</para></listitem>
- <listitem><para>Must be highly configurable to support many machines, distributions and architectures.</para></listitem>
- <listitem><para>Writing of metadata must be easy and reusable</para></listitem>
- </itemizedlist>
- </para>
- <para>Together with <ulink url="http://bitbake.berlios.de/manual"><application>BitBake</application></ulink>, OpenEmbedded satisfies all these and many more. Flexibility and power have always been the priorities.</para>
- </section>
-
-
- <section>
- <title>History</title>
- <para>OpenEmbedded was invented and founded by the creators of the OpenZaurus project.
-At that time the project had pushed <emphasis>buildroot</emphasis> to its limits. It supported the creation of
-<emphasis>ipk</emphasis> packages, feeds and images and had support for more than one machine. But it was impossible
-to use different patches, files for different architectures, machines or distributions. To overcome this shortcoming
-OpenEmbedded was created.</para>
- <para>After a few months other projects started using OpenEmbedded and contributing back. On 7 December 2004 Chris Larson split the project into two parts: BitBake, a generic task executor and OpenEmbedded, the metadata for BitBake.</para>
- </section>
- </chapter>
-
-
- <chapter>
- <title>Getting Started</title>
- <section>
- <title>Getting <application>BitBake</application></title>
- <para>The required version of <application>BitBake</application> is changing rapidly. At the time of writing (end of 2007) <application>BitBake</application> 1.8.latest was required.</para>
- <para>A good method is to get <application>BitBake</application> from the stable Subversion branch.
- <screen>
-<command>svn</command> co http://svn.berlios.de/svnroot/repos/bitbake/branches/bitbake-1.8
-...
-A bitbake-1.8/classes/base.bbclass
-U bitbake-1.8
-At revision 986.
- </screen>
- <application>BitBake</application> is checked out now; this completes the first and most critical dependency of OpenEmbedded. Issuing <command>svn</command> <command>update</command> in the <emphasis>bitbake-1.8</emphasis> directory will update <application>BitBake</application> to the latest stable version, but generally it is a good idea to stick with a specific known working version of <application>BitBake</application> until OpenEmbedded asks you to upgrade.
- </para>
- </section>
-
- <section>
- <title>Getting OpenEmbedded</title>
- <para>
-The OpenEmbedded metadate has a high rate of development, so it's a good idea to stay up to date.
-You'll need monotone 0.29 or later to get the metadata and stay up to date. Monotone is available in most distributions and has binaries at http://venge.net/monotone/
-
-<screen>
-#get the snapshot
-wget http://openembedded.org/snapshots/OE.db.bz2 http://openembedded.org/snapshots/OE.db.bz2.md5
-
-#verify the integrity
-cat OE.db.bz2.md5sum
-md5sum OE.db.bz2
-
-#extract the tarball
-bunzip OE.db.bz2
-
-#check the development branch
-monotone --db=OE.db co -b org.openembedded.dev
-</screen>
-
- </para>
- </section>
-
- <section>
- <title>Configuring OpenEmbedded</title>
- <para>This section is a stub, help us by expanding it</para>
- </section>
-
- <section>
- <title>Building Software</title>
- <para>Once you set up and configured BitBake and OpenEmbedded, you can build software and images like this:
-<screen>
-bitbake &lt;recipe_name&gt;
-</screen>
- </para>
-
- <para>This section is a stub, help us by expanding it</para>
- </section>
- </chapter>
-
-
- <chapter>
- <title>Metadata</title>
- <section>
- <title>File Layout</title>
- <para>OpenEmbedded has six directories three of them hold <application>BitBake</application> metadata.</para>
-
- <para>The <emphasis>conf</emphasis> directory is holding the bitbake.conf, machine and distribution configuration. bitbake.conf is read when <application>BitBake</application> is started and this will include among others a local.conf the machine and distribution configuration files. These files will be searched in the <command>BBPATH</command> environment variable.</para>
-
- <para><emphasis>classes</emphasis> is the directory holding <application>BitBake</application> bbclass. These classes can be inherited by the <application>BitBake</application> files. BitBake automatically inherits the base.bbclass on every parsed file. <command>BBPATH</command> is used to find the class.</para>
-
- <para>In <emphasis>packages</emphasis> the <application>BitBake</application> files are stored. For each task or application we have a directory. These directories store the real <application>BitBake</application> files. They are the ones ending with <emphasis>.bb</emphasis>. And for each application and version we have one.</para>
-
- </section>
- <section>
- <title>Syntax</title>
- <para>OpenEmbedded has files ending with <emphasis>.conf</emphasis>, <emphasis>.inc</emphasis>,
-<emphasis>.bb</emphasis> and<emphasis>.bbclass</emphasis>. The syntax and semantic of these files are best
-described in the <ulink url="http://bitbake.berlios.de/manual"><application>BitBake</application> manual</ulink>. </para>
- </section>
- <section>
- <title>Classes</title>
- <para>OpenEmbedded provides special <application>BitBake</application> classes to ease compiling, packaging and other things. FIXME.</para>
- </section>
- <section>
- <title>Writing Meta Data (Adding packages)</title>
- <para>This page will guide you trough the effort of writing a .bb file or <emphasis>recipe</emphasis> in BitBake speak.</para>
-
- <para>Let's start with the easy stuff, like the package description, license, etc:
-
- <screen>
-DESCRIPTION = "My first application, a really cool app containing lots of foo and bar"
-LICENSE = "GPLv2"
-HOMEPAGE = "http://www.host.com/foo/"
-MAINTAINER = "Joe N. User &lt;joe@user.net&gt;"
- </screen>
-
-The maintainer field needs to have a real name and a working email-address to be useful, the description and license fields are mandatory, so better check them twice.
- </para>
-
- <para>The next step is to specify what the package needs to build and run, the so called <emphasis>dependencies</emphasis>:
-
- <screen>
-DEPENDS = "gtk+"
-RDEPENDS = "cool-ttf-fonts"
- </screen>
-
-The package needs gtk+ to build ('DEPENDS') and requires the 'cool-ttf-fonts' package to run ('RDEPENDS'). OE will add run-time dependencies on libraries on its own via the so called <emphasis>shlibs</emphasis>-code, but you need to specify everything by yourself, which in this case is the 'cool-ttf-fonts' package.
- </para>
-
- <para>After entering all this OE will know what to build before trying to build your application, but it doesn't know where to get it yet. So let's add the source location:
-
- <screen>
-SRC_URI = "http://www.host.com/foo/files/${P}.tar.bz2;md5sum=yoursum"
- </screen>
-
-This will tell the fetcher to where to download the sources from and it will check the integrity using md5sum if you provided the appropriate <emphasis>yoursum</emphasis>. You can make one by doing <screen>md5sum foo-1.9.tar.bz2</screen> and replacing <emphasis>yoursum</emphasis> with the md5sum on your screen. A typical md5sum will look like this: <screen>a6434b0fc8a54c3dec3d6875bf3be8db </screen>Notice the <emphasis>${P}</emphasis> variable, that one holds the package name, <emphasis>${PN}</emphasis> in BitBake speak and the package version, <emphasis>${PV}</emphasis> in BitBake speak. It's a short way of writing <emphasis>${PN}-${PV}</emphasis>. Using this notation means you can copy the recipe when a new version is released without having to alter the contents. You do need to check if everything is still correct, because new versions mean new bugs.
- </para>
-
- <para>Before we can move to the actual building we need to find out which build system the package is using. If we're lucky, we see a <emphasis>configure</emphasis> file in the build tree this is an indicator that we can <emphasis>inherit autotools</emphasis> if we see a <emphasis>.pro</emphasis> file, it might be qmake, which needs <emphasis>inherit qmake</emphasis>. Virtually all gtk apps use autotools:
-
- <screen>
-inherit autotools pkgconfig
- </screen>
-
-We are in luck! The package is a well-behaved application using autotools and pkgconfig to configure and build it self.
- </para>
-
- <para>Lets start the build:
-
- <screen>
-<command>bitbake</command> foo
- </screen>
-
-Depending on what you have built before and the speed of your computer this can take a few seconds to a few hours, so be prepared.
- </para>
-
- <para>
-.... some time goes by .....
- </para>
-
- <para>Your screen should now have something like this on it:
-
- <screen>
-NOTE: package foo-1.9-r0: task do_build: completed
-NOTE: package foo-1.9: completed
-NOTE: build 200605052219: completed
- </screen>
- </para>
-
- <para>All looks well, but wait, let's scroll up:
-
-
- <screen>
-NOTE: the following files where installed but not shipped:
- /usr/weirdpath/importantfile.foo
- </screen>
-
-OE has a standard list of paths which need to be included, but it can't know everything, so we have to tell OE to include that file as well:
-
- <screen>
-FILES_${PN} += "/usr/weirdpath/importantfile.foo"
- </screen>
-
-It's important to use <emphasis>+=</emphasis> so it will get appended to the standard file-list, not replace the standard one.
- </para>
- </section>
- </chapter>
-
-
- <chapter>
- <title>Special features</title>
- <section>
- <title>Debian package naming <anchor id="debian" /></title>
- <screen>INHERIT += "debian"</screen>
- <para>Placing the above line into your <emphasis>${DISTRO}.conf</emphasis> or <emphasis>local.conf</emphasis> will
-trigger renaming of packages if they only ship one library. Imagine a package where the package name (<command>PN</command>) is foo and
-this packages ships a file named <command>libfoo.so.1.2.3</command>. Now this package will be renamed to <command>libfoo1</command> to
-follow the Debian package naming policy.</para>
- </section>
-
- <section>
- <title>Shared Library handling (shlibs) <anchor id="shlibs" /></title>
- <para>Run-time Dependencies (<command>RDEPENDS</command>) will be added when packaging the software. They should only contain
-the minimal dependencies to run the program. OpenEmbedded will analyze each packaged binary and search for <command>SO_NEEDED</command> libraries. The libraries are absolutely required by the program then OpenEmbedded is searching for packages that installs these libraries. these
-packages are automatically added to the <command>RDEPENDS</command>. As a packager you don't need to worry about shared libraries anymore
-they will be added automatically.</para>
- <remark>NOTE: This does not apply to plug-ins used by the program.</remark>
- </section>
-
- <section>
- <title>BitBake Collections <anchor id="collections" /></title>
- <para>This section is a stub, help us by expanding it</para>
- </section>
-
- <section>
- <title>Overrides <anchor id="overrides" /></title>
- <para>This section is a stub, help us by expanding it</para>
- </section>
-
- <section>
- <title>Package Feed Support <anchor id="feeds" /></title>
- <para>"Package feed", or feed for short, is a term used by <command>ipkg</command> package manager, commonly used in embedded
-systems, to name a package repository holding packages. Structurally, a feed is a directory on HTTP of FTP server,
-holding packages and package descriptor file, named <command>Packages</command> or <command>Packages.gz</command>
-if compressed.
- </para>
- <para>OpenEmbedded has support to pre-configure feeds within generated images, so once images are
-installed on devices, users can immediately install new software, without the need to manually edit config files.
-There are several ways to pre-configure feed support, described below.
- </para>
- <section>
- <title>Method 1: Using existing feed</title>
- <para>If you already have a feed(s) set up and available via specific URL, you can
-add them to the image using FEED_URIS variable:
-<screen>
-FEED_URIS = "\
- feed1##http://some-server.org/feed \
- feed2##http://some-server.org/feed-another"
-</screen>
-FEED_URIS contains list of feed descriptors, separated by spaces, per OE conventions. Each descriptor
-consists of feed tag and feed URL, joined with "##". Feed tag is an identifier used by ipkg to distinguish
-among the feeds. It can be arbitrary, just useful to the users to understood which feed is used for one
-or another action.
- </para>
- </section>
-
- <section>
- <title>Method 2: Using OE deploy dir as a feed (development only)</title>
- <para>OE internally maintains a feed-like collection of directories to create
-images from packages. This package deployment directory structure however has OE-internal
-structure and subject to change at any time. So, using it as feed directly is not recommended
-(distributions which ignored this recommendation are known to have their feeds broken when
-OE upgraded its internal mechanisms).
- </para>
- <para>However, using deploy directory as feed directly may be beneficial during
-development and testing, as it allows developers to easily install newly built packages
-without many manual actions. To facilitate this, OE offers a way to prepare feed configs
-for deploy dir usage. To start with this, you first need to configure local HTTP server
-to export a package deployment directory via HTTP.
-Suppose you will
-export it via URL "http://192.168.2.200/bogofeed" (where 192.168.2.200 is the address
-which will be reachable from the device). Add following to your local.conf:
-<screen>
-FEED_DEPLOYDIR_BASE_URI = "http://192.168.2.200/bogofeed"
-</screen>
-Now you need to setup local HTTP server to actually export that directory. For Apache it will be:
-<screen>
-<![CDATA[
-Alias /bogofeed ${DEPLOY_DIR}
-
-<Directory ${DEPLOY_DIR}>
- Options Indexes FollowSymLinks
- Order deny,allow
- Allow from 192.168.2.0/24
-</Directory>
-]]>
-</screen>
-Replace ${DEPLOY_DIR} with the full path of deploy directory (last components of its path will be
-<command>deploy/ipk</command>).
- </para>
- <para>Now, when you will build an image, it will automatically contain feed configs
-for the deploy directory (as of time of writing, deploy directory was internally structured with
-per-arch subdirectories; so, there are generated several feed configs, one for each subdirectory).
- </para>
-
- </section>
-
- </section>
- </chapter>
-
- <chapter>
- <title>Common Use-cases/tasks</title>
-
- <section>
- <title>Creating a new Distribution</title>
- <para>This section is a stub, help us by expanding it</para>
- </section>
-
- <section>
- <title>Adding a new Machine</title>
- <para>This section is a stub, help us by expanding it</para>
- </section>
-
- <section>
- <title>Adding a new Package</title>
- <para>This section is a stub, help us by expanding it</para>
- </section>
-
- <section>
- <title>Creating your own image</title>
- <para>This section is a stub, help us by expanding it</para>
- </section>
-
- <section>
- <title>Using a prebuilt toolchain to create your packages</title>
- <para>It might be necessary to integrate a prebuilt toolchain and other libraries but still be use
-OpenEmbedded to build packages. One of many approaches is shown and discussed here.</para>
-
- <section>
- <title>The toolchain</title>
- <para>We assume the toolchain provides a C and C++ compiler, an assembler and other tools to build packages.
-The list below shows a gcc 3.4.4 toolchain for ARM architectures using glibc. We assume that the toolchain is in your <command>PATH</command>.</para>
-<screen>
-<command>ls</command> pre-built/cross/bin
-
-arm-linux-g++
-arm-linux-ld
-arm-linux-ranlib
-arm-linux-ar
-arm-linux-g77
-arm-linux-readelf
-arm-linux-as
-arm-linux-gcc
-arm-linux-gcc-3.4.4
-arm-linux-c++
-arm-linux-size
-arm-linux-c++filt
-arm-linux-nm
-arm-linux-strings
-arm-linux-cpp
-arm-linux-objcopy
-arm-linux-strip
-arm-linux-objdump
-</screen>
- </section>
- <section>
- <title>The prebuilt libraries</title>
- <para>We need the header files and the libraries itself. The following directory layout is assume.
-<command>PRE_BUILT</command> has two subdirectories one is called <emphasis>include</emphasis> and holds the header files and
-the other directory is called <emphasis>lib</emphasis> and holds the shared and static libraries. Additionally a Qt2 directory
-is present having a <emphasis>include</emphasis> and <emphasis>lib</emphasis> sub-directory.</para>
- <screen>
-<command>ls</command> $PRE_BUILT
-include
-lib
-qt2
-</screen>
- </section>
-
- <section>
- <title>Setting up OpenEmbedded</title>
- <para>OpenEmbedded will be setup here. We assume that your machine and distribution is not part
-of OpenEmbedded and they will be created ad-hoc in the <emphasis>local.conf</emphasis> file. You will need to have
-<application>BitBake</application> and a current OpenEmbedded version available.
- </para>
-
- <section>
- <title>Sourcable script</title>
- <para>To ease the usage of OpenEmbedded we start by creating a source-able script. This is actually a small
-variation from the already seen script. We will name it <emphasis>build_source</emphasis> and you will need to source it.</para>
- <screen>
-BITBAKE_PATH=/where/is/bitbake/bin
-TOOLCHAIN=/where/is/toolchain/bin
-HOST_TOOLS=/where/is/hosttools/bin
-export PRE_BUILT=/where/is/pre-built
-
-export PATH=$BITBAKE_PATH:$TOOLCHAIN:$HOST_TOOLS:$PATH
-export OEDIR=$PWD
-export LOCALDIR=$PWD/secret-isv
- </screen>
- <para>Use <command>source build_source</command> to source the script, use <command>env</command> to check
-that the variable where exported.</para>
- </section>
-
- <section>
- <title>Creating the local.conf</title>
- <para>We will configure OpenEmbedded now, it is very similar to what we have done above.</para>
-
- <screen>
-DL_DIR = "${OEDIR}/sources"
-BBFILES := "${OEDIR}/openembedded/packages/*/*.bb ${LOCALDIR}/packages/*/*.bb"
-BBFILE_COLLECTIONS = "upstream local"
-BBFILE_PATTERN_upstream = "^${OEDIR}/openembedded/packages/"
-BBFILE_PATTERN_local = "^${LOCALDIR}/packages/"
-BBFILE_PRIORITY_upstream = "5"
-BBFILE_PRIORITY_local = "10"
-BBMASK = ""
- </screen>
- <para>${OEDIR}/openembedded will be a upstream release of OpenEmbedded. Above we have assumed it is in the
-current working directory. Additionally we have a ${LOCALDIR}, we combine these two directories as a special <link linkend="collections">BitBake Collection</link>.</para>
-
- <screen>
-#
-# machine stuff
-#
-MACHINE = "secret-killer"
-IPKG_ARCHS = "all arm armv4 armv5te iwmmxt xscale ${MACHINE}"
-TARGET_CC_ARCH = "-mcpu=xscale -mtune=iwmmxt"
-TARGET_ARCH = "arm"
-PACKAGE_ARCH="xscale"
- </screen>
- <para>We tell OpenEmbedded that we build for the ARM platform and optimize for xscale and iwmmxt.</para>
-
- <screen>
-INHERIT += " package_ipk debian"
-TARGET_OS = "linux"
-TARGET_FPU = "soft"
-DISTRO = "secret-disro"
-DISTRO_NAME = "secret-distro"
-DISTRO_VERSION = "x.y.z"
-DISTRO_TYPE = "release"
- </screen>
- <para>Create a distribution ad-hoc as well. We tell OpenEmbedded that we build for linux and glibc using
-soft float as fpu. If your toolchain is a uclibc toolchain you will need to set <command>TARGET_OS</command> to linux-uclibc.</para>
-
- <screen>
-export CC = "${CCACHE}arm-linux-gcc-3.4.4 ${HOST_CC_ARCH}"
-export CXX = "${CCACHE}arm-linux-g++ ${HOST_CC_ARCH}"
-export CPP = "arm-linux-gcc-3.4.4 -E"
-export LD = "arm-linux-ld"
-export AR = "arm-linux-ar"
-export AS = "arm-linux-as"
-export RANLIB = "arm-linux-ranlib"
-export STRIP = "arm-linux-strip"
- </screen>
- <para>The above variables replace the ones from <emphasis>bitbake.conf</emphasis>. This will make OpenEmbedded
-use the prebuilt toolchain.</para>
-
- <screen>
-#
-# point OE to the lib and include directory
-#
-TARGET_CPPFLAGS_append = " -I${PRE_BUILT}/include "
-TARGET_LDFLAGS_prepend = " -L${PRE_BUILT}/qt2/lib -L${PRE_BUILT}/lib \
--Wl,-rpath-link,${PRE_BUILT}/lib -Wl,-rpath-link,${PRE_BUILT}/qt2/lib "
-
-# special to Qt/Qtopia
-QTDIR = "${PRE_BUILT}/qt2"
-QPEDIR = "${PRE_BUILT}"
-palmtopdir = "/opt/Qtopia"
-palmqtdir = "/opt/Qtopia"
- </screen>
- <para>We will add the <command>PRE_BUILT</command> libraries to the include and library paths. And the same is done for the special version of Qt we have in your <command>PRE_BUILT</command> directory.</para>
-
- <screen>
-ASSUME_PROVIDED += " virtual/${TARGET_PREFIX}gcc "
-ASSUME_PROVIDED += " virtual/libc "
-ASSUME_PROVIDED += " virtual/qte "
-ASSUME_PROVIDED += " virtual/libqpe "
-ASSUME_PROVIDED += " libqpe-opie "
- </screen>
- <para>Now we have told <application>BitBake</application> that the C library, compiler and Qtopia is already provided.
-These lines will avoid building binutils, gcc initial, glibc, gcc.</para>
-
-
- <screen>
-<command>source</command> build_source
-<command>bitbake</command> your-killer-app
- </screen>
- <para>You should be able to create the packages you want to using the prebuilt toolchain now.</para>
-
- </section>
- </section>
-
- <section>
- <title>Useful hints</title>
- <para>If you have more prebuilt libraries you need to add additional <command>ASSUME_PROVIDED</command>
-lines to your <emphasis>local.conf</emphasis>. Using <command>bitbake -vvv PACKAGE</command> you can easily see the package names
-you could <command>ASSUME_PROVIDED</command> if you have some prebuilt.</para>
- </section>
-
- <section>
- <title>Issues with this approach</title>
-<screen>
-NOTE: Couldn't find shared library provider for libqtopia.so.1
-NOTE: Couldn't find shared library provider for libqtopia2.so.2
-NOTE: Couldn't find shared library provider for libqpe.so.1
-NOTE: Couldn't find shared library provider for libpthread.so.0
-NOTE: Couldn't find shared library provider for libstdc++.so.6
-NOTE: Couldn't find shared library provider for libqte.so.2
-NOTE: Couldn't find shared library provider for libgcc_s.so.1
-NOTE: Couldn't find shared library provider for libc.so.6
-NOTE: Couldn't find shared library provider for libm.so.6
-</screen>
- <para>OpenEmbedded tries to automatically add run-time dependencies (RDEPENDS) to the package. It uses the
-<emphasis><link linkend="shlibs">shlibs</link></emphasis> system to do add them, in this case it was not able
-to find packages providing these libraries as they are prebuilt. This means they will not be added to the RDEPENDS of the just
-created package. The result can cause various issues. If you use OpenEmbedded to create images you will end up with a image without a libc being
-installed. This will lead to a fatal failure. As a quick workaround, you could create a package for the metadata to install every
-needed library and use ${BOOTSTRAP_EXTRA_RDEPENDS} to make sure this package is installed when creating images.</para>
-<para>However, the correct way to resolve this is to provide explicit mapping using ASSUME_SHLIBS variable. For example, for
-the libraries above (partial):
-<screen>
-ASSUME_SHLIBS = "libqtopia2.so.2:qtopia2_2.4 libc.so.6:libc"
-</screen>
-The format is shlib_file_name:package[_version]. If a version is specified it will be
-used as the minimal (>=) version for the dependency.
-</para>
- </section>
-
- </section>
-
- <section>
- <title>Using a new package format</title>
- <para>This section is a stub, help us by expanding it</para>
- </section>
- </chapter>
-
- <chapter>
- <title>Comparing</title>
-
- <section>
- <title>buildroot</title>
- <para>Writing of <application>BitBake</application> recipes is more easy and more intuitive than writing Makefiles while providing higher flexibility. This allows you to tweak specific recipes for your very special needs and to add new recipes very fast. You can build toolchains, Software Distribution Kits (SDKs), complete Distributions or just single packages. The flexibility of OpenEmbedded allows you to reuse the once written recipes for many different purposes. OpenEmbedded provides everything buildroot will be able to provide. But in contrast to buildroot OpenEmbedded will allow you to achieve what you really want to achieve. You can add new package formats, new filesystems, new output formats easily. OpenEmbedded will suit your need.</para>
- </section>
-
- <section>
- <title>crosstool</title>
- <para>Crosstool allows to create toolchains for you. It can only create the initial toolchain for you. It will not compile other needed libraries or applications for you, it will not be able to track dependencies or to package them properly. OpenEmbedded supports all configurations crosstool supports. You can start to create toolchains with OpenEmbedded, then as your needs grow create a more complete SDK from already present base libraries and applications and if you recognize you need to have packages for the target you have them almost built already.</para>
- </section>
-
- <section>
- <title>handmade</title>
- <para>Cross-compilation is a tough business. It is not that cross-compiling is hard itself but many people misuse
-the buildsystem they use to build their software. This will lead to a variety of issues you can run into. This can be failing
-tests on configuration because of executing cross compiled binaries or crashes at run-time due wrong sizes of basic types.
-When utilizing OpenEmbedded you avoid searching for patches at many different places and will be able to get things done more quickly.
-<application>OpenEmbedded</application> allows you to choose from a pool of ready to use software packages.</para>
- <para>OpenEmbedded will create complete flashable images using different output formats and filesystems. This allows you to create complete and specialized distributions easily.</para>
- </section>
- </chapter>
+ <bookinfo>
+ <title>OpenEmbedded User Manual</title>
+
+ <authorgroup>
+ <corpauthor>OpenEmbedded Team</corpauthor>
+ </authorgroup>
+
+ <copyright>
+ <year>2006</year>
+
+ <year>2007</year>
+
+ <holder>Holger Hans Peter Freyther</holder>
+
+ <holder>Koen Kooi</holder>
+
+ <holder>Detlef Vollmann</holder>
+
+ <holder>Jamie Lenehan</holder>
+
+ <holder>Marcin Juszkiewicz</holder>
+
+ <holder>Rolf Leggewie</holder>
+ </copyright>
+
+ <legalnotice>
+ <para>This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution
+ License. To view a copy of this license, visit <ulink
+ url="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/">http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/</ulink>
+ or send a letter to Creative Commons, 559 Nathan Abbott Way, Stanford,
+ California 94305, USA.</para>
+ </legalnotice>
+ </bookinfo>
+
+ <!-- Main chapters-->
+
+ &chapter-introduction;
+
+ &chapter-metadata;
+
+ &chapter-gettingoe;
+
+ &chapter-features;
+
+ &chapter-commonusecases;
+
+ &chapter-comparing;
+
+ &chapter-usage;
+
+ &chapter-recipes;
+
+ <!-- Reference manual. Sorted alphabetically. -->
+
+ <chapter id="chapter_reference">
+ <title>Reference</title>
+
+ &class-autotools;
+
+ &class-binconfig;
+
+ &dirs-install;
+
+ &dirs-staging;
+
+ &class-distutils;
+
+ &fakeroot;
+
+ &class-image;
+
+ &image-types;
+
+ &class-pkgconfig;
+
+ &class-rootfs_ipkg;
+
+ &var-section;
+
+ &class-siteinfo;
+
+ &var-src-uri;
+
+ &class-update-alternatives;
+
+ &class-update-rcd;
+ </chapter>
</book>